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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

I On the level of everyday life, the expression of emotion in the Book of Songs concretely unfolds itself in different aspects: in the first place, it deals with emotions of love, which embody the emotional relationship between men and women. In this regard, the emotions displayed in the Book of

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

related to rationality, emotions, and willpower. Nevertheless, as opposed to sensory knowledge, the expression of rationality in the heart-mind requires the activity of thought. Xunzi 荀子 (d. 238 BCE ) raised the issue of the heart-mind having “characteristics of knowledge”: The heart-mind has

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

ethical practice and the development of personal character, some Confucian philosophers emphasize moral conduct in conjunction with emotions and feelings such as commiseration, integral parts of personal cultivation. This transcends rationality in the narrow sense (that is, rationality at the level of

Philosophical Horizons

Metaphysical Investigation in Chinese Philosophy

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Yang Guorong

Edited by Paul D'Ambrosio

Professor Yang Guorong is one of the foremost living philosophers in China, and is widely known for the development of his “concrete metaphysics.” In Philosophical Horizons Yang offers penetrating discussions of some of the most important issues in modern philosophy—especially those topics related to comparative and Chinese philosophy. Drawing freely and adroitly on Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist texts, while staging a dialogue with Western thinkers such as from Kant and Hegel to Marx, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein, Yang shows how contemporary Chinese philosophy has adopted, localized, and critically developed Western ideas alongside traditional Chinese concepts.

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

and general form. Furthermore, existent sense is also concerned with the person’s emotional experience. Emotions are people’s most vivid perceptions and experiences, and within existent sense, including perceptions and experiences of an individualized meaning of life, these perceptions and experiences

Series:

Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

within the domain of family ethics) and “the people” (members of general society), but one should also take the emotional position of cherishing and being protective toward “things” in a broad sense. On a substantial level, this type of emotion should permeate value content. The Song and Ming lixue 理学

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

-related and multi-sided formulation gives us a concrete understanding of human beings. On an intrinsic level, human beings do not only have conscious attributes in a general sense, but moreover contain a spiritual world connected to rationality, emotions, willpower, imagination, intuition, and other mental

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

was conscious of this relatively early, and here I quote Huang Zongxi 黄宗羲 (d. 1695): life weighs us down to the earth, only having our parents and siblings, these insoluble emotions, inherent in us, are called real, and is the beginning of the naming of ren 仁 (“humaneness,” “benevolence”) and yi 义

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

natural and innate emotions and uses the affirmation of the person’s innate values as its substantial content. The distinction between humans and birds establishes that humans’ innate values are different from other animals. It is these types of new values that offer a possibility for a society to obtain

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Guorong Yang

Editor/translator Paul J. D’Ambrosio, Daniel Sarafinas, Sharon Small, Ady van den Stock and Stefano Gandolfo

spiritual life of the individual, the Zhongyong says the following: The moment at which joy and anger, grief and pleasure, have yet to arise is called a zhong 中, “nascent equilibrium”; once the emotions have arisen, and have all been brought into proper focus, this is called he 和 “harmony.” 39 This