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INTRODUCTION The Piedra Chamana fossils are a 39 Ma assemblage of fossil woods and leaves preserved in ashfall and volcanic flow deposits at a site in northern Peru ( Woodcock et al. 2009 ). Descriptions of 17 of the non-monocot angiosperm wood types represented in the assemblage were published

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; Panti 2010 , 2014 , 2018 ; Fernández et al. 2012 ; Vento & Prámparo 2018 ) and pollen ( Romero 1977 ; Romero & Zamaloa 1985 ; Fernández et al. 2012 ; Fernández 2018 ) of the Río Turbio Formation have been intensively studied. The fossil woods have not been studied much. Thus far, only a

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of a tissue in extant plants can be measured i n vivo ( e.g. Ellmore & Ewers 1985 ; Sperry et al. 1988 ; Zwieniecki & Holbrook 1998 ; Hajek et al. 2016 ), this kind of experimental studies is obviously impossible for fossil woods. In previous analyses devoted to fossils, derivations of the

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& Escapa 2015 , 2016 ). The Cretaceous-Cenozoic of the Northern Hemisphere with its well-documented climate changes ( e.g. , Upchurch & Wolfe 1987 ; Graham 1999 ; Bowen 2007 ; Linnert et al. 2014 ; Anagnostou et al. 2016 ) and its relatively abundant fossil wood record provides opportunities for

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of the Envigne valley (Vienne, Western France) 530 Woodcock DW, Meyer HW, Prado Y. 2019. The Piedra Chamana fossil woods (Eocene, Peru), II 551 Pujana RR, Ruiz DP. 2019. Fossil woods from the Eocene–Oligocene (Río Turbio Formation) of southwestern Patagonia (Santa Cruz province, Argentina) 596 Vanner

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Fossil wood is one of the most common types of plant fossil and often is well-preserved. It was one of the first objects ever observed with a microscope ( Hooke 1665 ). The development of petrographic thin-sections in the XIX th century has allowed researchers to pursue detailed anatomical studies

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. 2018 ). Shipworms, bivalve molluscs of the family Teredinidae, are notorious for boring into wood that is immersed in sea water. Conifers are the most abundant and diversified fossil wood in this assemblage, representing around 90% and at least five different taxa. They consist of large logs

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INTRODUCTION Although New Zealand has an abundance of fossil wood, few samples have been described anatomically ( Vanner et al. 2018 ). Fossil wood, together with other plant macro- and microfossils, provides an important record of changing paleofloras through time and helps chart the evolution

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torus ( Wilson & Knoll 2010 ). Pre-Cretaceous occurrences of fossil wood with a well-defined torus-margo are very rare and sometimes questionable ( Holden 1915 ), but the presence of torus-margo pit membranes is documented in many coniferous fossil woods from the Cretaceous on ( Schmid 1967

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, Butterfield   BG . 2001 . Anatomical comparison of compression, opposite, and lateral woods in New Zealand rimu ( Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb.) . J. Korean Wood Sci. Technol. 29 ( 3 ): 1 – 13 . Falcon-Lang   HJ . 2005 . Intra-tree variability in wood anatomy and its implications for fossil wood

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