This paper describes five species of dicotyledonous fossil wood from the lower Oligocene Tsuyazaki Formation in Tsuyazaki, Fukuoka Prefecture, northern Kyushu: Rhus palaeojavanica (Anacardiaceae), Alnus scalariforme (Betulaceae), Hamamelis prejaponica (Hamamelidaceae), Magnoliaceoxylon palaeogenica (Magnoliaceae) and Sonneratia kyushuensis (Sonneratiaceae). This brings the number of species described from the Tsuyazaki locality to 19. Among these 19 species modern equivalents of all species, except for Sonneratia, occur in temperate to subtropical forests. Sonneratia is found today in mangrove vegetation of tropical to subtropical regions. The presence of Sonneratia may suggest a warmer climate in Kyushu during the early Oligocene.
Silicified woods from the lower Miocene Yanagida Formation were collected from two sites, Mawaki and Uchiura, in the northeastern Noto Peninsula, central Japan. Among 80 specimens, 15 species representing 13 families were identified, including six new species: Torreya mioxyla (Taxaceae), Castanopsis uchiuraensis (Fagaceae), Camellia japonoxyla (Theaceae), Stewartia notoensis (Theaceae), Distylium chiharu-hirayae (Hamamelidaceae) and Aesculus mioxyla (Hippocastanaceae). The fossil wood floras from these two sites contain evergreen and deciduous dicotyledons and have a similar composition. These floras are compared to the fossil wood flora from Monzen and to the Daijima-type compression fossil flora. The composition of the fossil wood floras of Mawaki and Uchiura suggests they represent a mixed mesic forest of conifers, deciduous dicotyledons and evergreen dicotyledons.
Three types of fossil woods with similarities to the Leguminosae are described, Mimosoxylon tenax (Felix) Müller-Stoll ' Mädel, Bajacalijomioxylon cienense Cevallos-Ferriz ' Barajas-Morales, gen. et sp. nov., and Copaijeroxylon matanzensis Cevallos-Ferriz ' Barajas-Morales, sp. nov. These woods are from the EI Cien Formation in Baja California Sur, Mexico, which is dated as Zemorrian-Saucesian, i.e., late Oligocene–early Miocene. Although two of the names of the fossil woods suggest affinity with a particular extant taxon, differences in some quantitative and qualitative features preclude their identification with a single extant taxon. The similarity among wood of some groups of extant Leguminosae and limited knowledge of character variability in woods of this family explains this taxonomie uncertainty. These fossil woods from Baja California underscore the need for an extensive systematic study of the wood anatomy of Leguminosae, add to the poorly known plant history of the Peninsula, suggest a tropical South American influence in the fossil flora of Baja Califomia, and indicate that the climate during the Zemorrian- Saucesian was different from the xeric conditions that prevail today in the area.
A detailed analysis of selected quantitative features was made of secondary xylem from the trunk, branch, and root of a specimen of Robinia pseudoacacia L. The analysis serves as a basis for interpreting two suites of fossil woods closely similar to the wood of Robinia. One assemblage had its provenance in western Nevada and the other in southern California. Results of the survey show considerable overlap in ranges of variation in the fossils and extant woods. These findings parallel results of a similar investigation by Matten et al. (1977). Woods from both fossil localities fall within the specifications of the organ species Robinia zirkellii (Platen) Matten, Gastaldo ' Lee. The survey also revealed the kinds of differences that may be found in species of Robinia growing in dissimilar habitats. Differences noted among trunk, branch and root wood of extant Robinia make it possible to distinguish these organs among the fossils.
INTRODUCTION The Piedra Chamana fossils are a 39 Ma assemblage of fossilwoods and leaves preserved in ashfall and volcanic flow deposits at a site in northern Peru ( Woodcock et al. 2009 ). Descriptions of 17 of the non-monocot angiosperm wood types represented in the assemblage were published
; Panti 2010 , 2014 , 2018 ; Fernández et al. 2012 ; Vento & Prámparo 2018 ) and pollen ( Romero 1977 ; Romero & Zamaloa 1985 ; Fernández et al. 2012 ; Fernández 2018 ) of the Río Turbio Formation have been intensively studied. The fossilwoods have not been studied much. Thus far, only a
Tepexi de Rodríguez in Puebla ( Ramírez et al . 2000 ; Ramírez & Cevallos-Ferriz 2002 ). The record of anacardiaceous fossilwoods is rich, with approximately 78 wood types reported worldwide ( e.g. , Awasthi 1966 ; Gregory et al . 2009 ). The majority of the records are from Cenozoic sediments of
, habitats (van Welzen 2016 ). Bischofia polycarpa Airy-Shaw is restricted to evergreen mountain forests of eastern and southern China. Both species are widely cultivated, and their timber is used commercially ( Li & Gilbert 2008 ). Fossilwoods that resemble extant Bischofia have been extensively
et al. 2010 ), Malvaceae ( Rodriguez-Reyes et al. 2014 ), Chrysobalanaceae ( Jud et al. 2016 ), Calophyllaceae ( Nelson & Jud , in press), and Fabaceae (Rodriguez-Reyes et al., under review). In the present paper we describe a new fossilwood type from the Miocene of Panama, which further
A simple, rapid and non-destructive technique used for preparing coal and kerogen samples was adapted for use with calcified fossil wood. The technique involves embedding samples in resin, polishing their surfaces and observing them using fluorescence microscopy.