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Brett Maiden

1 Introduction The demons Pazuzu and Lamaštu are among the most fantastic and frightening creatures from ancient Mesopotamia. From a conceptual point of view, they are also among the most complex. As hybrid creatures, the appearance of each figure combines an impressive array of

Rita Lucarelli

ambiguity when considering its occurrences in other works. 3 One issue in the ontological characterization of demons, both in Egyptian and Greek thought, concerns their physicality. In Egyptian funerary compositions many demons have bodies, generally of hybrid nature. The same can be seen in the

Ido Koch

, “Introduction;” P. Van Dommelen, “Colonial Interactions and Hybrid Practices: Phoenician and Carthaginian Settlement in the Ancient Mediterranean,” in The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters , ed. G. J. Stein, 109–141; idem, “Colonialism and Migration in the Ancient Mediterranean,” Annual Reviews 41 (2012

Seth Sanders

of ethnic purity on which other contemporary scholarly articles of his were based. While von Soden survived this attempted “exposure” of his hybrid Jewish-infl uenced scholarship, his teacher Landsberger fl ed for his life to Ankara and then Chicago. 11 And it was this very migration of German Near

Y. S. Chen

chronological timescale. The catastrophe was eventually regarded as the climactic event that partitioned early world history into the antediluvian era and the postdiluvian era. 7 (5) Convergence of traditions: Mythological and chronographic traditions related to the Flood converged in certain hybrid

Carolina López-Ruiz

for its believed efficacy in this context. This combination of cultural elements denotes a hybrid practice in its own right, inseparable from the Phoenician context where it appears, independently of who made the artifact. For all we know the bands were made by Egyptians in Egypt and sold to

Carolina López-Ruiz

plausible etymology. Mount Saphon (Ugaritic ß apunu / ß ap à nu ) is a to hybrid animals and monsters of oriental style. We are familiar with the artistic tendency, especially up to the 6th cent. BC, of portraying gorgons, gri ffi ns, cherubs, sphinxes, and other strange and hybrid creatures. This taste is

Ryan Thomas

, Megiddo, Dan, Lachish, Tell el-Farʾah south, Shechem). 35 For their part, Keel and Uehlinger have argued against understanding the hybrid imagery as a representation of any major Israelite deity and have characterized the creatures as servant-like guardians comparable to biblical cherubim, “protective

Margo Kitts

, the lion of the deep (Wyatt 2005 :190–91). In 3rd millennium Akkadian iconography it is a serpent with seven heads; 10 its heads are plural too in Psalm 74:13. 11 Along with various hybrid creatures (e.g., griffins, 12 serpent-birds, lion-serpents, all on seals), sea monsters and riotous waters

Theodore J. Lewis

figures, see Wiggermann, Mesopotamian Protective Spirits in the Ritual Texts (esp. pages 73ff on apkallū ). See too the detailed, visual catalogue of hybrid forms (also known as Mischwesen ) in A. Green, “Mischwesen. B. Archälogie” in Reallexikon der Assyriologie , Vol. 8 (1994) 246–264, esp. page