This paper shows how religious speeches by leaders of the Taalibe Baay, disciples of the Senegalese Sufi Shaykh Ibrahim Ñas, uphold Islamic knowledge and authority while accommodating competing yet intertwined knowledge regimes. French and Arabic enter into Wolof religious discourse in multiple ways through contrasting educational methods, uses, and language ideologies. These three languages are combined and separated in numerous linguistic registers juxtaposed in religious speeches: classical Arabic prologues and textual quotations, “deep Wolof” narratives largely excluding loanwords, more conversational registers using some French terms, and so on. Although orators typically use French terms sparingly, they sometimes break this pattern and use them liberally, especially when critiquing Western hegemony and secular values. They sometimes incorporate French discourses of “liberty” and “progress” in passages designed to demonstrate Islam’s superiority in achieving these ideals. Orators tend to replace common French terms for morally positive concepts with Arabic terms, yet they usually reinsert the French as a gloss to facilitate comprehension. I discuss these utterances as cases of linguistic “hybridity” in which contrasting voices combine to serve an authorial purpose. These rhetorical patterns fit into a larger pattern of accommodating, contesting, and appropriating hegemonic languages, institutions, and ideas while upholding Islam’s unique authoritativeness.
. This gave rise to what Kane calls a “hybrid” system that borrowed from Western pedagogy and taught the same subjects as the colonial schools, but used either Arabic exclusively or a mixture of Arabic and the colonial language and included religious instruction alongside the secular subjects. These are
societies adopted it. In the regions where the number of Arab settlers was significant or where intense trade relations took place, Arabic was implemented regionally or at least as the language of trade. 12 But in many cases, the local-global encounters resulted in hybrid literacy practices, adapted to
complementarity is noticeable in two types of hybrid (bilingual or multilingual) texts commonly found in Muslim Africa: (1) ʿAjamī manuscripts with Islamic doxologies, loanwords, and phrases in Arabic drawn from Islamic texts, and (2) Arabic texts with explicative marginalia and glosses in ʿAjamī.
other skills to produce a unique hybrid form of modern Hausa calligraphy:
The Prince Charles School of Traditional Arts in the u.k. came to know of my work and my institute. In the year 2006, they came to engage me and some of my trained students in geometry and how to utilize it and advance our
doesn’t conceptualize this pluralism and hybridity.
LB : That was also the view of many who attended the Birmingham seminar. At one point the discussion moved toward a broader critique of Foucault’s theories, which I must admit did not much interest me. This reaction illustrates an aspect of my
al-Qaradawi, was referred to as a frequent source of knowledge and consultancy by several Ansār-related preachers. This points to a fragmentation of sacred authority while adding to the hybridity of sources that are drawn on by individual preachers at different levels of learning. 50
are adapting to the changing religious landscape, including the rise of a new generation of so-called religious entrepreneurs. These “hybrid” Muslim brotherhoods are closer to reformist Islam, less devoted to mysticism, and more involved in the social and political life of the country.
. Peaceful forms of engagement between Muslims and those who are not of the faith are often understood in terms of mixing, and the emergence of self-consciously hybrid or accretive practices, such as ‘Chrislam’, suggests that such ideas resonate with some West African groups.
However, analyses in
Adabiyya and Markaziyya were strongly influenced by the personality and experiences of their founders, the particular form of Islamic modernisation in each educational stream appears not as a hybrid mixture of different forms of knowledge, practice, and epistemology, but as the coherent expression of an