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Nasima M. H. Carrim

Introduction The objective of the current research was to ascertain how Indian women managers engage in hybrid identity work to reach a sense of coherence in the process of negotiating their gender and racio-ethnic identities and in the process accommodating and resisting the strictures of a

Resisting Hybridity

Colonial and Postcolonial Youth in Ambiguous Adventure by Cheikh Hamidou Kane and L’Appel des arènes by Aminata Sow Fall

Omar Sougou

Joseph Hill

This paper shows how religious speeches by leaders of the Taalibe Baay, disciples of the Senegalese Sufi Shaykh Ibrahim Ñas, uphold Islamic knowledge and authority while accommodating competing yet intertwined knowledge regimes. French and Arabic enter into Wolof religious discourse in multiple ways through contrasting educational methods, uses, and language ideologies. These three languages are combined and separated in numerous linguistic registers juxtaposed in religious speeches: classical Arabic prologues and textual quotations, “deep Wolof” narratives largely excluding loanwords, more conversational registers using some French terms, and so on. Although orators typically use French terms sparingly, they sometimes break this pattern and use them liberally, especially when critiquing Western hegemony and secular values. They sometimes incorporate French discourses of “liberty” and “progress” in passages designed to demonstrate Islam’s superiority in achieving these ideals. Orators tend to replace common French terms for morally positive concepts with Arabic terms, yet they usually reinsert the French as a gloss to facilitate comprehension. I discuss these utterances as cases of linguistic “hybridity” in which contrasting voices combine to serve an authorial purpose. These rhetorical patterns fit into a larger pattern of accommodating, contesting, and appropriating hegemonic languages, institutions, and ideas while upholding Islam’s unique authoritativeness.

The Tiv Typology

New Horizons and Neo-Oralities in Interrogating African Oral Products in a Digital Age

Godwin Aondofa Ikyer

interplay and dislocating the boundary between cultures and micropolitics, helping promote global communication flows and the evolution of hybrid or trans-global models of social and economic productions as an integral part of an emergent horizon of cultural forms. As A.A. Liman posits, The

Changing Conceptions of Masculinity in the Marital Landscape of Africa

A Study of Ama Ata Aidoo’s Changes and Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood

Nii Okain Teiko

hybridism of masculinities in which both male and female characters mediate a balance between their traditional African roles as husbands/wives, and fathers/mothers, on the one hand, and make an imitated eurocentric display of love and affection as husbands/wives in the context of marriage, on the other

Obi Nwakanma

Among Africa's leading twentieth-century poets, Christopher Okigbo occupies a most interesting space. Born to Igbo Roman Catholic parents in Eastern Nigeria, Okigbo studied the Classics and began to write poetry as a means of re-identification with his primal world. Yet both his life and his poetry staked a claim to a universalist impulse, and, as a colonial subject interpreting the postcolonial moment, Okigbo rejected a narrow, essentialist categorization of either himself or his poetry. He rejected the Africa Prize in 1966, claiming that "there is no such thing as African poetry, there is only good poetry or bad poetry." Okigbo appropriated signs and tropes from a vast range of sources, emphasizing the cosmopolitan, hybrid, transborder nature of signs and language in the postcolonial text. Yet Okigbo's poetry exhibits the recursive fantasy, displacement, and disorientation of a problematic imaginative cosmos. I argue in this essay that Okigbo, especially in the poems "Limits" and "Distances," was expressing his attempt to engage in an agonistic search, a quest for some stable identity. In interpreting the chaotic space of postcolonial experience, the poet Okigbo reflects what Homi Bhabha describes as a "mixed and split text of hybridity" – the double-toned voice of postcolonial anxiety.

Adebisi Ademakinwa

This is an interdisciplinary study of the role of culture in the development of Nigeria as a nation. The essay raises questions, among which are: what are the externalized and internalized aspects of Nigerian national culture? Which innate concepts of this culture do contemporary Nigerians understand and which concepts are grasped or misunderstood by foreigners? Russian and Nigerian literary works – Nikolai Gogol's and Chinua Achebe's, to mention but two – are utilized to determine similarity and dissimilarity of the pervasive nature of materialism in two different cultures. The essay finds philistine the platitude of Nigerian cultural managers inherent in such externalized cultural fiestas as FESTAC '77 and Nigerian Carnivals, while the more beneficial one, the internalized aspects which we call the fundamental culture, are merely mulled over, wholly misjudged, and mostly left unexplored. The essay finds, furthermore, that development can only be strengthened when the internalized aspects of Nigerian traditional societies are understood and synthesized with modern hybrid cultures before human development can take place. The essay makes no pretence to being a specialist study; rather, it crosses the borders of fiction, the social sciences, cultural anthropology, and history.

Department of English, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ilé–Ifè, Nigeria. He has published widely in journals and scholarly collections on Yorùbá-English phonology and morphemics, and on linguistic hybridity in Nigerian hip hop, is the author of The Verb in Standard Nigerian English and Nigerian Pidgin English

Anxious Mobilities in Accra and Beyond

Making Modern African Subjects in Ama Ata Aidoo’s Changes: A Love Story

Anna-Leena Toivanen

’s representations of modern mobilities is generated by the complexities that characterize the self-fashioning of modern African subjects in a post/colonial/independence context—a condition of hybridity that, according to Aidoo’s heroine, Esi, is “so absolutely lunatic and so ‘contemporary African’.” 16 In other