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In: Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets (4 Vols.)
Author: Paolo Sartori

by the colonial lawmakers and jurists, describing a case in which locals were able to maneuver government officials into using procedures from various legal traditions and thus produce a legal hybrid. 9 It is significant that, in deciding to hear cases brought by Muslims, Russian bureaucrats

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Presenting a large body of evidence for the first time, this book offers a comprehensive treatment of Nubian architecture, sculpture, and minor arts in the period between 300 BC-AD 250. It focuses primarily on the Nubian response to the traditional pharaonic, Hellenistic/Roman, Hellenizing, and “hybrid” elements of Ptolemaic and Roman Egyptian culture. The author begins with a history of Nubian art and a critical survey of the literature on Ptolemaic and Roman Egyptian art. Special chapters are then devoted to the discussion of the Egyptian-Greek interaction in the arts of Ptolemaic Egypt, the place of Egyptian Hellenistic and Hellenizing art within the oikumene, the pluralistic visual world of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, as well as on the specific genre of terracotta sculpture. Utilizing examples from Meroe City and Musawwarat es Sufra, the author argues that cultural transfer from Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt to Nubia resulted in an inward-focused adaptation. Therefore, the resulting Nubian art from this period expresses only those aspects of Egyptian and Greek art that are compatible with indigenous Nubian goals.
The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E.
Author: Rainer Albertz
The period of the Babylonian Exile (597/587–520 B.C.E.) is one of the most enthralling eras of biblical history. During this time, Israel went through what was probably its deepest crisis; at the same time, however, the cornerstone was laid for its most profound renewal. The crisis provoked the creation of a wealth of literary works (laments, prophetic books, historical works, etc.) whose development is analyzed in detail by the methods of social history, composition criticism, and redaction criticism. The history of this era is hard to grasp, since the Bible has almost nothing to say of the exilic period. The author nevertheless attempts to illuminate the historical and social changes that affected the various Judean groups, drawing heavily on extrabiblical and archaeological evidence. His study also includes the treatment of the exile in later biblical material (Daniel, Tobit, Judith, apocalyptic literature). Thirty-five years after Peter Ackroyd’s classic Exile and Restoration, this book summarizes extensively the results of recent scholarship on this period and builds on them with a number of its own hypotheses.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

directly to the bodies of mammals. Since there were no horses to anoint before the Ur  III period, this can hardly have been the principal application of lard at that time, though I suppose their forerunners, the onager-donkey hybrids, could have received the same treatment. But in any case it is certain

In: The Third Millennium
Author: Selena Wisnom

in Mesopotamian literature the possibility that this is a lion-snake hybrid cannot be ruled out (first suggested by Heidel, 1963: 141; also Foster, 2005: 581). There are archaic seal impressions which may depict such a creature (see Lewis, 1996: 35–36). Cf. Cunningham 1997, text 63: an incantation

In: Weapons of Words: Intertextual Competition in Babylonian Poetry

embodiment (in Göttertypentext and characterizations of hybrid creatures and personified destructive forces), as well as the sense of order and progression (in Ugu-mu, sa . gig , and other texts concerned with interrelationships among different bodily regions and parts). Very often, these different

In: The Third Millennium
Author: Arlette David

meaning/referent; depending on the viewpoint taken, a visual sign may be understood as an icon, index, or symbol, since ‘most signs are categorically hybrid’ 29 in a scalar continuum of analogy, motivation, and arbitrariness. 30 The image of the Atenist concept defined by the Protocol

In: Renewing Royal Imagery
Author: Rita Lucarelli

ambiguity when considering its occurrences in other works. 3 One issue in the ontological characterization of demons, both in Egyptian and Greek thought, concerns their physicality. In Egyptian funerary compositions many demons have bodies, generally of hybrid nature. The same can be seen in the

In: Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions

recognized as 'hybrid' in character. It is now presumed that there is a real ceramic evidence for early third millennium Dilmun in Saudi Arabia, where at Jamdat Nasr through Early Dynastic III imported wares have been recovered from tombs and settlement sites near Dhahran and Abqaiq38), and where the

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient