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Florian Schneider

regional, transnational networks in our research can help us overcome the methodological nationalism that is so often engrained in area knowledge, then studying digital communication should provide an excellent example of infrastructures and processes that potentially transgress the borders of nation

Martin E. Roth

contemporary digital design methodologies. The fact that my own attempt at creating a game has not led to any playable conclusion yet indicates the difficulties involved in such an endeavour – this article hopefully shows that it is quite possible and fruitful to participate in the digital area of game

Florian Schneider and Chris Goto-Jones

-enhanced police authorities and government officials. Last but not least, Chris Goto-Jones explores the emancipatory potential of Japanese videogames by suggesting a new methodological approach to game research: the travelogue. By embracing the notions that space is a social construction and that the virtual

Tabassum “Ruhi” Khan

: Ethnography and Virtual World: A Handbook of Method by Tom Boellstorff, Bonnie Nardi, Celia Pearce, and T.L. Taylor (2012), published by Princeton University Press and Researching Virtual Worlds: Methodologies for Studying Emergent Practices (2014) edited by Ursula Plesner and Louise Phillips and published

Erotic Japonisme

The Influence of Japanese Sexual Imagery on Western Art

Ricard Bru

At its height in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Japonisme had a tremendous impact on Western art. In this publication, author Ricard Bru approaches the cultural phenomenon of Japonisme from an innovative standpoint. He presents an in-depth discussion of the influence of Japanese printed erotic imagery by ukiyo-e masters such as Kitagawa Utamaro, Katsushika Hokusai, and Utagawa Hiroshige on European artists, including Edgar Degas, Auguste Rodin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Gustav Klimt and Pablo Picasso, as well as writers, critics, and collectors, such as Edmond de Goncourt, Joris-Karl Huysmans, and Émile Zola. With over 160 color illustrations sourced from public and private collections, Erotic Japonisme demonstrates the rich artistic dialogue that existed between Europe and Japan.

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Edited by Benjamin A. Elman and Chao-Hui Jenny Liu

The “Global” and the “Local” in Early Modern and Modern East Asia presents a unique set of historical perspectives by scholars from two
important universities in the East Asian region—The University of Tokyo (Tōdai) and Fudan University, along with East Asian Studies scholars from Princeton University. Two of the essays address the international leanings in the histories of their respective departments in Todai and Fudan. The rest of the essays showcase how such thinking about the global and local histories have borne fruit, as the scholars of the three institutions contributed essays, arguing about the philosophies, methodologies, and/or perspectives of global history and how it relates to local stories. Authors include Benjamin Elman, Haneda Masashi, and Ge Zhaoguang.

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Fabien Simonis

Abstract

The Siku quanshu’s claim that Chinese medical learning split into rival schools in the Jin (1115–1234) and Yuan (1260–1368) periods has misled generations of historians. By reappraising conceptions of illness, textual forms, and intellectual groupings—illness, texts, and “schools”—from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century, this article shows instead that the late Yuan was when Chinese medical thinking started to become purposely integrative. Zhu “Danxi” Zhenheng (1282–1358) developed a syncretic approach to medical knowledge based on the then-unusual notion that illness was infinitely mutable and diverse. To cure all patients successfully, he advocated borrowing the best precepts and methods from several masters. This methodology dominated Chinese medical thinking for more than two hundred years and explains why the most influential medical treatises from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century were anthologies of excerpts from past texts. By the seventeenth century, however, Zhu Zhenheng had been reconstrued as a derivative thinker rather than a syncretist. The new notion of “four masters of the Jin and Yuan” (Zhang Congzheng, Liu Wansu, Li Gao, and Zhu) supplanted and obscured the Danxi synthesis, which had included Zhang Ji’s third-century doctrines on shanghan (Cold Injury). The reinterpretation of Danxi as one among many Jin-Yuan masters naturally bolstered the Siku quanshu’s statement about schools. Ironically, even the most virulent critiques of Danxi ended up promoting the same conception of illness and the same syncretic style that he had championed. Danxi’s concepts and methodology are still shaping Chinese medicine today.