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Max Bader and Hans Schmeets

Election observation by OSCE/ODIHR has come under increased scrutiny in recent years. 1 While the methodology of OSCE/ODIHR election observation is perhaps the most elaborate among organizations that are active in election observation, it has essentially remained unchanged since the late 1990s


Jessica Schultz

ensure that interpretation aligns with the drafters’ intentions is even more critical in the absence of an individual complaints procedure to challenge a state’s interpretation or application of the Convention. 16 The following sections outline the methodological framework for the book. Section 2


Edited by The Markland Group

The Markland Group is a Canadian non-governmental organization founded in 1987 by Douglas Scott. It is composed of lawyers, academics and other professionals with a special interest in the compliance aspects of disarmament treaties. The Canadian Council on International Law was founded in 1972 to represent Canadian international law practitioners and academics and to facilitate and promote the study of international legal problems by scholars and professionals.
These two organizations joined forces in March 1995 to conduct a workshop on compliance, a topic which they felt had received insufficient attention from the international legal community. Thirty-eight experts from Canada, the United States and Great Britain were assembled for a series of meetings at the University of Toronto under the chairmanship of Walter Dorn and Christine Elwell. Five of the papers presented at the workshop have since been edited, expanded and updated for publication in this volume. The papers analyse compliance measures under various treaties, with particular attention being given to: The Biological Weapons Convention; the Chemical Weapons Convention; the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Safeguards); Trade and Environment Compliance Measures; and International Humanitarian Law Compliance and Enforcement Mechanisms and their potential impact on Arms Control and Disarmament Treaties.
The Markland Group and the CCIL believe that the study of treaty compliance methodology is still in its infancy. The development of effective, reliable and acceptable compliance systems is imperative, particularly for treaties dealing with disarmament. It is hoped that this volume will provide an impetus for enhanced study of this crucial issue.


Jadranka Petrovic

Although it is precious to all humanity, including future generations, cultural property is targeted wilfully during armed conflict. In the litany of other war crimes the wilful destruction of cultural property is pushed from centre stage. The deliberate destruction of the Old Bridge of Mostar is emblematic of tragedies wrought on priceless cultural objects internationally. Drawing on the relevant rules of international humanitarian law and the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, this book analyses the normative implications of the deliberate targeting and destruction of the Old Bridge and also examines enforcement efforts in order to identify issues relating to international legal protection of cultural property arising from this incident.


Andrea Carcano

This volume discusses the practice of transformative military occupation from the perspective of public international law through the prism of the occupation of Iraq and other cases of historical significance. It seeks to assess how international law should respond to measures undertaken in the pursuit of a given transformative project, whether or not supported by the Security Council.

A monographic study tackling the bulk of the international law issues that emerge during and as a result of a transformative occupation, based on a comprehensive analysis of historical cases, applicable norms, and relevant facts.

"With this thorough and thought provoking study, Andrea Carcano has put us all in his debt."
From the foreword by Georges Abi-Saab, Emeritus Professor, Graduate Institute of International Studies and Development.


Edited by Ustina Dolgopol and Judith G. Gardam

The papers in this collection bring together a wide and diverse range of viewpoints to consider how the catastrophic consequences of deadly armed conflict can be addressed.
Commentators are drawn from the United Nations and its agencies, key non- governmental organisations, world-class academic circles, senior members of government, leading human rights lawyers and judges with experience in international criminal law. These experts address deadly conflict in a comprehensive fashion covering all its stages: the causes and prevention of conflict; conflict resolution and peace-building; international criminal law and international humanitarian law and the role of the United Nations, humanitarian organisations and peacekeepers in post conflict situations.
This collection is for those with an existing interest and expertise in international law, international relations, peace studies and criminal justice as well as for those who wish to become conversant with emerging developments in these fields.


Claudie Barrat

In Status of NGOs in International Humanitarian Law, Claudie Barrat examines the legal framework applicable to NGOs in situations of armed conflict. The author convincingly demonstrates, contrary to convention, that in addition to the ICRC, the National Societies and the IFRC, numerous other NGOs referenced in humanitarian law treaties have a legal status in IHL and therefore legitimate claim to employ IHL provisions to respond to current challenges. On the basis of clear and thorough definitions of these entities, Barrat argues that existing NGOs meeting stringent definition can benefit from customary rights and obligations in both international and non-international armed conflict.


Edited by Dan Saxon

Increasingly, war is and will be fought by machines – and virtual networks linking machines - which, to varying degrees, are controlled by humans. This book explores the legal challenges for armed forces resulting from the development and use of new military technologies – automated and autonomous weapon systems, cyber weapons, “non-lethal” weapons and advanced communications - for the conduct of warfare. The contributions, each written by scholars and military officers with expertise in International Humanitarian Law (IHL), provide analysis and recommendations for armed forces as to how these new technologies may be used in accordance with international law. Moreover, the chapters provide suggestions for military doctrine to ensure continued compliance with IHL during this ever-more-rapid evolution of technology.