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Edited by Nicole Baumgarten, Inke Du Bois and Juliane House

Subjectivity in Language and in Discourse deals with the linguistic encoding and discursive construction of subjectivity across languages and registers. The aim of this book is to complement the highly specialized, parallel and often separate research strands on the phenomenon of subjectivity with a volume that gives a forum to diverse theoretical vantage points and methodological approaches, presenting research results in one place which otherwise would most likely be found in substantially different publications and would have to be collected from many different sources. Taken together, the chapters in this volume reflect the rich diversity in contemporary research on the phenomenon of subjectivity. They cover numerous languages, colloquial, academic and professional registers, spoken and written discourse, diverse communities of practice, speaker and interaction types, native and non-native language use, and Lingua Franca communication. The studies investigate both already well explored languages and registers (e.g. American English, academic writing, conversation) and with respect to subjectivity, less studied languages (Greek, Italian, Persian, French, Russian, Swedish, Danish, German, Australian English) as well as many different communicative settings and contexts, ranging from conference talk, promotional business writing, academic advising, disease counselling to internet posting, translation, and university classroom and research interview talk. Some contributions focus on individual linguistic devices, such as pronouns, intensifiers, comment clauses, modal verbs, adjectives and adverbs, and their capacity of introducing the speaker's subjective perspective in discourse and interactional sequence; others examine the role of larger functional categories, such as hedging and metadiscourse, or interactional sequencing.


Sonia Zyngier

Since its beginning in the late 19th century, literary education has lacked theories that systematize teaching and methodologies that validate practice. Consequently, much work in the area has relied on argument rather than on real data. What is needed in literary education are ways in which scholars develop descriptions of methods that will help them arrive at evidence-based conclusions. However, this is easier said than done. Trying to cope with the problems of dealing with hypotheses, statistics and numbers in general, Humanities students tend to see the experience as both frightening and fascinating. In order to find out the difficulties students of literature encounter when learning to do empirical research, a questionnaire was distributed to 14 participants from different countries who attended the IGEL2 Summer Institute in 2004. Participants were asked how they became interested in empirical studies, what their literary biography was, what they considered the main problems of empirical work to be, and how they thought it related to literary education. Respondents agreed that there is a need to teach students how to deal with real, palpable knowledge by means of well-structured and objective data. This article presents the main problems participants raised in empirical work.


Matthew I. Ayars

3.1 Stylistics: The Methodology Dilemma and a Solution Roman Jakobson’s work outlined in the previous chapter was a precursor to literary-linguistic DA along with a number of other sub-disciplines within both linguistic and literary studies. One of the fields founded on Jakobsonian theory of


Belinda Crawford Camiciottoli


Moisés Almela and Pascual Cantos

1 Introduction In corpus linguistics collocation is one of the primary sources of information for lexical semantic analysis. The search for distributional correlates of semantic properties is widely established as a fundamental methodological strategy in the discipline. At the same time, there is a

Nonveridicality and Evaluation

Theoretical, Computational and Corpus Approaches


Edited by Maite Taboada and Rada Trnavac

Nonveridicality and evaluation interact in obvious ways in conveying opinion and subjectivity in language. In Nonveridicality and Evaluation Maite Taboada and Radoslava Trnavac bring together a diverse group of researchers with interests in evaluation, Appraisal, nonveridicality and coherence relations. The papers in the volume approach the intersection of these areas from two different points of view: theoretical and empirical. From a theoretical point of view, contributions reflect the interface between evaluation, nonveridicality and coherence. The empirical perspective is shown in papers that employ corpus methodology, qualitative descriptions of texts, and computational implementations.


Edited by Anita Fetzer and Kerstin Fischer

The multifaceted and heterogeneous category of common ground is central to theories of pragmatics, sociolinguistics, discourse and context. This book addresses current approaches to common ground from the novel perspective of lexical markers. The edited volume falls in two parts. The first part addresses the relationship between mechanisms of grounding and reference to common ground. The second part examines different types of common ground. It is shown that the investigation of lexical markers provides a novel perspective for investigating the relationship between grounding, common ground and common grounds. Contributions are by Sherri L. Condon and Claude G. Cech, Anita Fetzer, Kerstin Fischer, Francois Nemo, Thanh Nyan, Moeko Okada, Carlos Rodriguez Penagos, Karin Pittner and Thora Tenbrink. It reviews current approaches to common ground from the perspective of lexical markers. It is organized into two parts that discuss the relationship between mechanisms of grounding. It is a reference to common ground and the different types of common ground. It reflects current trends in the field that cross methodological boundaries and integrate cognition, context, genre, negotiation of meaning, and dialogue.


Hans Martin Lehmann and Gerold Schneider


In this paper we present a corpus-driven approach to the detection of syntax-lexis interactions. Our approach is based on the output of a syntactic parser. We have parsed the British National Corpus and constructed a database of lexical dependencies. Such a large-scale approach allows for a detailed investigation of patterns and constructions associated with individual lexical items found in argument positions.

We then address the methodological problems of such an approach: precision errors (unwanted instances) and recall errors (missed instances) and offer a detailed evaluation. We investigate the interaction between syntax and lexis in verb-subject and verb-object structures as well as the active-passive alternation. We show that our approach provides relatively clean data and allows for a corpus-driven investigation of rare collocations.