species; development of transparency and surveillance tools; spatial distribution and stock assessments; environmental justice; and effectiveness of the law, enforcement, and governance. The map relies on new methodologies, therefore further development may be required before any direct evidence may prove
Carmen M. Cusack
tidal creek. Within 48 hours some fish populated the area. Species included barracuda, shad, gray snapper, schoolmaster snapper, and cubera snapper. The team studied and developed planting methodologies for future restoration projects in the Bahamas. Touristic endeavors into zones with mangroves
Carmen M. Cusack
describes data collection methodology (e.g., geospatial coordinates) and scientific names. Nomenclature (i.e., common and scientific name) is listed and searchable (Burke Museum, n.d.; i BOL , 2016). Data in the Fish Base describes environment and climate, biology, size, range and distribution, natural
HEATHER CLAY and DOUGLAS CLAY
Fecundity studies on Clarias lazera measured both number and size distribution of ova in the ovary. Ova were separated by size with a series of 12 sieves between 1.2 and 0.1 mm and counted by gravimetric and volumetric methods. The total length-ovary weight relationship resembled that of C. gariepinus and is: Y = 7.08 × 10−8 X 3.41 (n = 11, r 2 = 0.82), where Y is the ovary weight in g and X is the total length in mm. The total length (X mm)—total ovum number (Y) relationship is: Y = 1.28 × 10−4 X 3.44 (n = 11, r 2 = 0.89). It is suggested that environmental factors probably control fecundity (number of ova) by affecting ovum size. Two peaks occur in ovum size distribution, at 0.84 and 0.10 mm, indicating that C. lazera may be capable of multiple spawning under suitable conditions. Ovum number and size distribution per unit volume were found to be relatively constant throughout the ovary with greater variation between sides than within sides. Mean number of ova per ml on each sieve is a quick method for estimating total ovum number for ova with diameter ⩾ 0.5 mm and unreliable for ova < 0.5 mm. A cubic transformation gave a more accurate number of ova per ml than an arithmetic mean, but the work involved appeared unwarranted.
methodological approach for translocations has been most influenced by disciplines with species and population level concerns rather than concern at the level of individual ( Caro, 2007; Baker, 2013 ). Thus, although the inclusion of behavioral ecology has been an important step towards more population
James R. Vonesh and Leon Blaustein
. Ecology 89: 1703-1713. Gerberich, J. B., Laird, M. 1985. Larvacious fish in the biological control of mosquitoes, with a selected bibliography of recent literature. In: Laird, M., Miles, J. W., eds. Integrated mosquito control methodologies. Academic Press, London, pp. 47-58. Gould, E. A
PIOTR NOWICKI, JOSEF SETTELE, Pierre-Yves Henry and Michal Woyciechowski
viability analysis and management options for a critically endangered species in Western Europe. Biological Conservation 126: 569-581. Schwarz, C. J., Arnason, A. N. 1996. A general methodology for the analysis of capture-recapture experiments in open populations. Biometrics 52: 860-873. Schwarz
Avi Perevolotsky and Efrat Sheffer
. Rindfuss, R. R., Walsh, S. J., Turner, B. L. II, Fox, J., Mishra, V. 2004. Developing a science of land change: Challenges and methodological issues. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 13976-13981. Robinson, J. 1994. Land-use and land-cover projections. In: Meyer, W. B., Turner, B. L., eds. Changes in
Nadja Wielebnowski and Jason Watters
The desire to apply fecal steroid metabolite monitoring to key questions in conservation biology and behavioral ecology has steadily increased over the past decade. In particular, the measurement of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, which reflect changes in an individual's adrenal activity, and are thus a measure of the stress response, has become a sought-after tool for conservation biologists and behaviorists alike. The noninvasive nature of this method facilitates longitudinal physiological monitoring concomitant with behavioral observations and other noninvasive ecological and biological data collection, providing an increased level of insight and complexity that was previously impossible to obtain. While the method has huge potential, some doubt is beginning to emerge regarding its general applicability to field studies. This doubt may largely result from some misconceptions and lack of knowledge about the method itself. The perceived simplicity of this methodology has led some to believe that it is an easily and readily applicable tool, without further consideration of potential problems. However, no standardization currently exists for the methodology, and confounding variables are plentiful. While we want to highlight the usefulness and applicability of the technique for conservation biology and behavioral ecology, we primarily review some of the potential pitfalls and identify various tests and experiments researchers may need to perform and/or consider prior to undertaking this type of study. We also discuss some of the future research needs for increased applicability of this exciting methodology.
Life sciences became Biology, like Physics and Chemistry, only in the 19th century, when researchers turned to reductive, determinist experimental methodologies. Whereas theories like that of the cell and that of Faktoren-of-inheritance provided the elementary units of life, Darwinism provided the framework for the diversity of life and its evolution. Only towards the second half of the 20th century did biologists realize that once living systems were constructed, it was systems analysis that became the focus of understanding living structures and functions.