of observations (i) to (v) above is obvious, viz. even if we do not dispute the role that ordinary speakers’ linguistic intuitions play in semantics, truth-value matching presents a flawed methodology. When we present ordinary speakers with test utterances of a given sentence and give a semantic
1. Introduction It is commonplace for epistemologists to consider the importance of skepticism to be “methodological.” In their anthology of work in contemporary epistemology, Sven Bernecker and Fred Dretske introduce a section on skepticism with the commentary: “Almost nobody thinks that
Edited by Bert Hamminga and Neil B. De Marchi
Randy Malamud, Ron Broglio, Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld and Nathan Nobis
Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the ﬁ rst direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums pro- duce long-term positive eﬀ ects on people’s attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study’s methodological
Everything You Always Wanted to Know about the Pragmatics of Deception but Were Afraid to Test
Marta Dynel and Jörg Meibauer
’s or reader’s understanding of the goings-on in the fictional world. This methodological step is predicated on the (tacit) assumption that the discourse contrived by writers for wide audiences constitutes natural language (for discussion, see Dynel, this issue). On the other hand, deception is
An Enquiriy Concerning Economic Modelling
The aim of the following exposition is to critically analyse the concept of human security in security studies and suggest some methodological refinements. First, I will comment on the gradual expansion of the classic concept of security. This expansion comprises two dimensions—deepening and broadening. I will then illustrate how the expansion of security in general is reproduced in the concept of human security and why this presents a problem. To this end, I will first introduce the human security approach and then elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages of the expansion in this context. In particular, I will show how the broadening of human security and its resultant conceptual ambiguity prove to be a fundamental problem. I will establish that the conceptual impreciseness has negative and—regarding human security’s original intention—counterproductive impacts on the concept’s political effect. Here the securitization of originally non-security issues will be central to my argument. This problem with human security is not purely of academic interest, but has impacts on practice, as is illustrated and discussed at the end of this chapter in relation to humanitarian intervention. As a preliminary solution I suggest (from a methodological point of view) the use of a ‘core concept’ of human security which concentrates on the physical inviolability of the individual. Finally, I will elucidate this narrow conception as a first step towards a broader desecuritization process aimed at preserving the adequateness of security ascriptions.
Corrado Petrucco and Daniele Agostini
In recent years, thanks to the rapid advance of mobile technologies which lend portable devices great computing power, making them affordable at the same time, the development of applications and tools for augmented reality has found new life. The proposal is a reflection on current best practices in the field of augmented reality learning as a branch of mobile learning and on the technologies and methodologies that will build its future. Each of the major players in the global scene of the technology field has already produced or is preparing to produce powerful and economical solutions, following different philosophies. Variety, availability and affordability are three elements that give this technology a chance to be adopted in educational settings, not only in adult education, but also in cultural heritage education and even in the classroom. Many have employed these tools in such contexts, with analyses of the results obtained, often conducted by computer science or engineering faculties, but it is rare to find studies based and conducted on sound pedagogical and didactical foundations, and we will focus on these. We will analyse the technologies and methodologies used and we will reflect on the strengths and the issues that they present. As a natural conclusion of this work, we will finally share and discuss a proposed theoretical and methodological framework that can guide future experiences of augmented reality learning.
Ginette Roberge and Huguette Beaudoin
As a result of the prevalent reported negative effects of bullying between peers, numerous initiatives that strive to counter school bullying have surfaced. Research has shown that more effective approaches have consisted of cooperative actions which target different levels of school governance including administrators, teachers, parents, students and community partners. In the Canadian province of Ontario, the Ministry of Education has recently introduced legislation that aims to reduce school bullying through a preventative approach. This approach mandates policy development by all school governing authorities when faced with bullying behaviours among students as well as the creation of positive learning environments by rewarding student-led anti-bullying initiatives. The first phase of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the ensuing anti-bullying policies in Ontario in order to determine to which extent they adhere to effective anti-bullying strategies as identified by extant research. The second phase will consist of an impact study of these policies in Ontario schools following the Accepting Schools Act, in order to determine their degree of effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is therefore twofold: 1) to analyze the extent to which policy content is actually applied in schools; and 2) to analyze the effectiveness of the application of policy content in reducing school bullying on a larger scale. In order to achieve this dual purpose, the authors will describe a methodology that accentuates the process, the perceptions and the preoccupations of members of the school community in terms of school bullying between students and other members of the school community. Checkland’s soft systems theory will be applied to the endeavour to improve problematic situations, namely preventing and confronting school bullying, as proposed by Jacques Lapointe. The results of the study will expose the expression of varied insights from school professionals in terms of countering school bullying. In sum, this chapter therefore aims to describe the soft systems methodology and explains its pertinence to an impact study of the Ontario Accepting Schools Act (ASA).