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Access and Equity

Comparative Perspectives


Edited by Heather Eggins

The massive expansion of higher education across all continents is one of the defining features of our century. This volume examines two dimensions of this: those of access and equity. Building on the country studies undertaken by this group of Fulbright New Century Scholars, the book offers a unique focus in its commitment to bring together an analysis of the theoretical literature on equity; a focus on the methodological problems of measuring access and equity from a comparative perspective; a comparative analysis of trends and policy developments set in a global framework; and a comparative analysis of targeted initiatives which are currently in place in different societies. The need to develop a comparative research programme addressing the question of measuring equity is noted. The volume will be of interest to a broad range of readers: policy makers and researchers at international, national and local levels; non-governmental bodies; higher education institutions; and members of the public interested in these topics. During a period of financial constraint, the provision of access to higher education for disadvantaged groups, and their retention in higher education, remains a continuing and important issue.


Edited by Jane Knight

University rankings are a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. Although quite an established practice in the U. S., it is only within the last decade that attempts to analyse university performance have spread to the rest of the world, and that we also have seen new global rankings appear—rankings attempting to measure university performance beyond national borders. No wonder that this trend is accompanied by a growing interest in studying rankings throughout the world. This book is written as part of the effort to better understand rankings and their effects on higher education.
A serious approach towards university rankings implies that rankings should be analysed properly, including the methods used and the indicators chosen, and investigate the objectives claimed. If university rankings are considered as consumer information then everyone should have an interest in basing such guidance on valid and reliable data and methodology. A serious analysis should also discuss the wider implications of rankings as an emerging phenomenon in higher education.
Consequently, the contributions to this book investigate and analyse how different rankings work, how they reach their conclusions, and on what data and methodology they are built. Furthermore it provides a critical reflection about the impact of rankings on higher education, how and in what way rankings influence policy-making, the structure of the sector, or the internal life of the sector.

Prospects of Higher Education

Globalization, Market Competition, Public Goods and the Future of the University


Edited by Simon Marginson

As common global problems accumulate, research and higher education become ever more vital. At the same time global convergence is transforming the prospects of higher education institutions. Local and national affairs are no longer the ultimate horizon, creating much scope for cross-border initiative and invention in both knowledge and university strategy. Yet the new freedoms are not experienced equally in all localities. Differences between nations are still determining. As the older barriers are stripped away this enhances the capacity of strong universities and systems to dominate the rest, though new players are emerging. There are many possible trajectories for the university.
The future is open and the 22 authors in Prospects of Higher Education explore it from three perspectives: the world as a whole, the Americas, and particular localities and regions. Moving beyond nation-centered analysis of states and markets, Prospects uses concepts of public and private goods to map the potentials for global trade and university rankings, common knowledge benefits and multilateral policy action, national stratification and the wash-back effects in systems and institutions. Broad and imaginative, methodologically innovative and policy sharp, this book has much for government and university leaders, scholars of higher education and anyone interested in public policy.


Edited by Hans de Wit, Pawan Agarwal, Mohsen Elmahdy Said, Molatlhegi T. Sehoole and Muhammad Sirozi

Student mobility is the most important factor in the internationalization of higher education. In this book, existing assumptions will be questioned: that mobility is primarily South-North and North-North, and that South-South flows are rather marginal; that the economic rationale has become so dominant that there are nearly no other motives to be found anymore; and that the growing presence of national and international providers of higher education, and opportunities for distance education, reduce the need for international student mobility. The dynamics of international student circulation will be analyzed on the basis of four countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia and South Africa), which are perceived to be primarily on the sending side of student mobility, and Europe and the USA, which are perceived to be primarily but not exclusively on the receiving side. These case studies will be placed in the context of broader developments in the internationalization of higher education, and related to definitions, methodological issues and global data, as used by UNESCO, OECD and others. This study has been undertaken by five scholars from different parts of the world in the context of the 2005-2006 New Century Scholars Programme 'Higher Education in the Twenty- First Century', of the Fulbright Programme. The book will be of relevance for both researchers and practitioners on globalization and the internationalization of higher education.

William F. Massy

Education for innovation is shown to be synergistic with education quality defined broadly. Such education includes both general and specific approaches. The general approach draws on Derek Bok’s core purposes of an undergraduate education: learning to communicate, learning to think, building character, preparation for citizenship, living with diversity, preparing for a global society, acquiring broader interests, and preparing for a career. The specific approach, education about innovation and entrepreneurship, describes the process of innovation and presents role models to motivate students and help immunize them from the fear of failure. Topics include creative destruction, entrepreneurs, the adoption process for innovations, effects on productivity, and change agency. They are relevant to the education of informed citizens as well as training for would-be entrepreneurs

The idea of change agency extends to the challenge of furthering education for innovation in universities. The topics here represent “academic quality work” and “academic audit.” Academic quality work refers to efforts by departments and individual faculty members to set educational goals, map the goals into curricular design, design appropriate teaching and learning methods (including active learning), assess student and teacher performance, and assure quality. Academic audit refers to a methodology for ascertaining the maturity of a department’s academic quality work and encouraging improvement. Examples of how academic quality work and academic audit can be adapted to include factors important in education for innovation are provided. Explicit answers to the five guiding questions that motivate this volume are given in the last section of the chapter.


Katherine Punteney and Yilin Wei

teaching methodologies ( Yang, 2008 ), limited research resources, and the traditional educational structures in both recruitment and curriculum ( Pan, 2010 ). Li (2010) mentions that, since 1994, the number of Chinese students in foreign graduate programs was one-third of those enrolled in Chinese


Anne M. D’Angelo and Lili Dong

importantly, and critical to the success of advancing from a foundational to a relational and ultimately transformational methodology, is a focus on professionals – the significance of faculty, staff and community member roles, and their preparedness with the necessary knowledge and experience to create

Building a New Academic Institution

The Singapore University of Technology and Design


Thomas L. Magnanti

-wide centers that are developed as top down. As exemplified by the SUTD-MIT International Design Center (IDC), research has both an application dimension and a dimension that is more generic and methodological. The IDC focuses on three grand challenges: a sustainably-built environment, design with the

Innovation and the Development of Human Resources in the Gulf

Masdar Institute of Science and Technology


Fred Moavenzadeh

independent education: Public subsidies and private colleges (Policy Analysis No. 278). Washington, DC : Cato Institute . World Bank . ( 2008 ). Global economic prospects: Technology diffusion in the developing world . Washington, DC : World Bank . World University Rankings 2013–2014 Methodology