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J. Michael Spector

People confront a variety of types of problems. In some cases, a problem type has well-defined aspects that can be used to structure learning experiences and assess performance. However, this is not always the case. There are many ill-structured problems that are important to individuals as well as to society. Structuring experiences to promote learning and improve performance in responding to such problems is a challenge. A critical part of this challenge is devising assessment methods to indicate which alternative instructional approaches and methods are effective in various situations with different learners. This chapter presents an assessment methodology based on causal models that appears to predict relative level of expertise, at least in some complex problem domains.


Jan H.G. Klabbers

The purpose of this unique book is to outline the core of game science by presenting principles underlying the design and use of games and simulations. Game science covers three levels of discourse: the philosophy of science level, the science level, and the application or practical level. The framework presented will help to grasp the interplay between forms of knowledge and knowledge content, interplay that evolves through the action of the players.
Few scientists have witnessed such a radical change in their area of research and practice as those who engaged in play and gaming since the 1950s. Since that time game scientists from a whole variety of disciplines started adopting gaming and simulation methods in their research. Rapid advances in information technology and computer science are producing a tool rich environment for the design and use of games, and for humanities studies of games as digital arts and interactive narratives. Game science is advancing through these waves of change, driven by the digital computer game industry, enhanced through computer and information science, as well as through advances in professional gaming such as in education, public and business management, policy development, health care, eco-systems management, and so on.
When asking game scientists about the core of their science, one should expect to hear diverging answers. The common questions about the core of game and play are not new. They refer to: What is the meaning of game and play? What is real and what is virtual reality? How could we build simple and effective games from complex social systems? Are we able to bring forward a general theory of games? Are we able to help players (social actors) to find smart solutions and approaches to complex issues? How do games enhance learning and how do they improve our thinking capacity and action repertoire?
Current answers to these questions are scattered and inadequate. This book offers a frame-of-reference that will enlighten the characteristics of particular games and simulations from a common perspective. The author pays less attention to instrumental reasoning than on theoretical and methodological questions. Answers will provide a suitable context for addressing design science and analytical science approaches to artifact design and assessment, and theory development and testing. Due to the high diversity of approaches that game science has to accommodate the author chooses an interdisciplinary and where appropriate a meta-disciplinary approach.

Gaming Methodology

Views on model building


Jan H. G. Klabbers

Collaborative Trails

The Role of Trails in Structuring and Regulating Collaboration


Márta Turcsányi-Szabó

Leaming is an active, constructive process which is situated in a given space where all the objects have a predefined relation and an emerging effect on each other, whether it be material components (such as learning materials resources and tools) or human components (such as peers, teachers, experts and parents). Leaming is best done together when underpinned by sound theories investigating the social dimension of learning, and can be investigated through the different models used.

The question is: how to manage collaboration? Computer-Supported Collaborative Leaming (CSCL) focuses on the use of technology as a mediation tool for realising collaboration, which provides an environment saturated with state of the art tools that aim to enhance the process of learning. Collaboration in a virtual space is far less self emergent than in the real word, thus the question of management must be doubly emphasised.

Research questions aim to investigate the extent and impact of technology within computational strategies and whether it can trace and/or influence group learning in a positive way. The design of constructivist learning environments is important in enabling the effective use of collaboration. Models of activities, contributions, added values should be easily traceable within the designed environments so that peers can be identified as resources rather than competitors.

There is a distinction between computer support for structuring collaboration, which is done before collaboration takes place ( e.g. varying characteristics, role of participants, size of group, tools and activities dependant on the nature of the task based on educational principles or theories), and computer support for regulating collaboration while it is taking place (by comparing the arising situation through evaluation to a desired model). These two types of computer support also differ in the role played by technology. Proposed trails for structuring activities helps participants in taking an effective road for fulfilling tasks (navigating) using an optimal learning model, while evaluations of emergent trails of contributions develop self reflection and the process of decision making ( deciding). The questions remain: to what extent does this structuring and regulation produce affordances that enhance the emerging learning process, and should the phases of diagnosis and decision making be shifted from the system to the student's side, in order to foster the emergence of meta-cognitive skills? Emerging theories and methodologies are illustrated by current examples using collaborative trails in different settings.


Johanna öberg

research competence required a training program, so workshops were used to give the pupils some knowledge and experience in basic research methodology. It came up during both of the teacher interviews that this project was supported by both the headmaster and teachers. From a school point of view, they

Stories about History

Exploring Central Elements When Students Design Game Narratives


Kristine øygardslia

the narrative in games has been a subject of debate, raising questions, such as whether the narrative and interactivity oppose each other, as well as its possible methodological implications for game researchers (see, e.g., Jenkins, 2004 ). Nonetheless, many scholars would argue that stories

Designing with Teachers

Contrasting Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of a Gamified Application for Foreign Language Learners


Caroline Cruaud

. Brown , A. L. ( 1992 ). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings . The Journal of the Learning Sciences , 2 ( 2 ), 141 – 178 . doi: 10.2307/1466837 Chik , A. ( 2012 ). Digital gameplay for autonomous foreign language

Learning and Design Processes in a Gamified Learning Design

Students Creating Curriculum-Based Digital Learning Games


Charlotte Lærke Weitze

constructionist pedagogical methodology built upon the thesis that there is a strong connection between design and learning and that activity that involves making, building, or programming provides a rich context for learning ( Papert, 1980 ; Kafai & Resnick, 1996 ). Since 80% of teachers that use games in class


Scandinavian Perspectives


Hans Christian Arnseth, Thorkild Hanghøj, Thomas Duus Henriksen, Morten Misfeldt, Robert Ramberg and Staffan Selander

with how learning ecologies are designed and supported. Participation is also a crucial aspect of our methodologies. In both designs for learning and designs in learning researchers, designers, teachers and students are involved. Designs in learning refers to how learners’ trajectories, or learning