Consuls, particularly the representatives of Western nations from the early nineteenth century onwards, are relevant for the Islamic world both as agents of their countries’ imperialistic policies and as the authors of primary sources—methodologically often problematic—about the Islamic world. The
van den Boogert, Maurits H.
-realisation in the context of an organised methodology (ṭarīqa, Ṣūfī order, lit. “path”). Since the time of the Khurāsānian Ṣūfī Abū Yazīd al-Bisṭāmī (d. 260/874), the term nafas has been used by Ṣūfī...
Moussavi, Ahmad Kazemi
seminaries of Samarra and Najaf where, in addition to studying the traditional fields of sharīʿa law and Islamic legal methodology (uṣūl al-fiqh), he was educated in other subjects, including logic and histor...