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Moshe Lavee

later governing voice of the Talmud. Such use of two apparently contradictory methods might give pause for thought. The nature of the Bavli itself, however, clarifies this methodological move. As a text, the Bavli took on a canonical status without being subjected to formal canonization and redaction

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Moshe Lavee

’s methodological list in “A Critical Study”, 301–307. Further, the meimra is also cited in the discussion of the fifth baraita , where it appears without the prooftext, suggesting that the Hebrew meimra concerning the need for three originally circulated without the prooftext implying the existence of the

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Moshe Lavee

methodology applied in this book. A naive reading would consider that stricter views are attributed both to the majority of the tannaim and to Rabbi Yohnan simply because this is how it was. Both attributions are authentic; Rabbi Yohanan reinforced in the third century the views that were already held by the

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Edited by Mladen Popović, Myles Schoonover and Marijn Vandenberghe

The essays in this volume originate from the Third Qumran Institute Symposium held at the University of Groningen, December 2013. Taking the flexible concept of “cultural encounter” as a starting point, the essays in this volume bring together a panoply of approaches to the study of various cultural interactions between the people of ancient Israel, Judea, and Palestine and people from other parts of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world.

In order to study how cultural encounters shaped historical development, literary traditions, religious practice and political systems, the contributors employ a broad spectrum of theoretical positions (e.g., hybridity, métissage, frontier studies, postcolonialism, entangled histories and multilingualism), to interpret a diverse set of literary, documentary, archaeological, epigraphic, numismatic, and iconographic sources.

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Zeʾev Safrai

cases, ancient authors preserved only incomplete fragments of information that are understood only within the context of events related in Josephus. Therefore, an examination of the methodology of Josephus’ writings is of paramount importance. The reliability of his compositions, his sources and the

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Zeʾev Safrai

period, i.e. the methodical elucidation of the geographical background of the events he describes. He shares this feature with classical Greek historiography of the period, where it was regarded as proper methodology. In the other Jewish writings of the Second Temple period, we do not find such

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Zeʾev Safrai

below, but of course we cannot do the discussion justice and we cannot present a proven conclusion. On the level of literary methodology, we start from the simple conclusion that Christian tradition moved on from the biblical/Jewish foundation, which took the sanctity of Jerusalem for granted, to one or

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Zeʾev Safrai

, 79–95 briefly mentions several sources that predate the Usha generation and discusses their dating. Several of these dicta also are cited by later rabbis, and their early dating is therefore suspect. This system of deduction raises methodological difficulties, since a certain position may have been

Series:

Zeʾev Safrai

also been used in the realm of geography, but no attempt has yet been made to examine the topic fully and to examine its methodological aspects. Some geographical expositions seek to discover the literal meaning of the text, while others are extremely figurative (see the detailed discussion below

Series:

Zeʾev Safrai

methodology. In our opinion, a distinction should be made between the homiletical elements and those containing a historical basis. For our purposes, we will distinguish between two types of historical components. One lies in the realm of historical conception, that is to say, the way the areas of the tribal