Smartphones and tablets lead sales of electronic devices around the world and offer a rich field to explore gaming initiatives. Mobile media created a ludic ecosystem in which large publishers and small studios coexist; the new ways of digital content distribution allowed a gaming market with big productions and indie experiments to live in the same platforms. In this scenario, we want to analyse a development process involving an independent Brazilian mobile game named Dominaedro, launched by Ludofy Studio in 2014. Our focus in this work will be to discuss iterative design – a design methodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analysing, and refining a work in progress. In this context, we understand iterative design as a methodological tool to create a game. We intend to observe this kind of development process, emphasizing the analogical prototyping phase that gives us feedbacks from the beta-testing players, as in a qualitative research. Finally, we present the importance of the iterative design to quality assurance in the digital version of the game. Data collected through 20 beta testing sessions showed the importance of iterative process to improve a gaming experience and to facilitate the production of the digital product. Based on this content we will demonstrate the whole process of creating a mobile game – from the idea, through the prototypes, until reaching the final version. We conclude, highlighting the current tendency to create indie games using accurate design methodologies to gain audience in a very competitive scenario, and how indie games could be a learning point for aspirational game designers and small publishers; we will also emphasize the importance of using digital social networks and specialized media to publish and support an independent game.
Vicente Martin Mastrocola
Joanna Piskorz and Marcin Czub
We describe a series of 4 experiments on virtual reality use in pain alleviation. All studies were part of ‘VR4Health’ project, realized at the Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw. We tested how certain parameters of virtual environments (VE) influence pain tolerance and pain sensitivity. All studies were conducted using induced thermal pain paradigm (heat pain or cold pressor test), and within-group experimental design. Tested VE parameters (independent variables) were: game dynamics (slow paced vs fast paced VE), game complexity (amount of the elements meaningful for the gameplay), type of the interface, memory engagement, and body/movement engagement. Dependent variables were: temperature of pain stimulus, the time participants kept their hand in a cold water (pain tolerance), their subjective rating of pain on a Visual Analog Scale (pain intensity), and presence in VE. Results of all the studies confirm the analgesic efficacy of virtual reality interventions, compared to non-VR condition. However, body engagement was the only variable, which was found to differentiate between VR conditions and influenced pain tolerance. Game complexity was the only variable which influenced pain intensity. Partial results of those studies were published previously in Polish Journal of Applied Psychology and Polish Psychological Bulletin. Here we present summary description of the results, analyse repetitive patterns in the results, provide meta-analysis of effect sizes, and reflect on methodological issues arising from the paradigm we used. We also suggest ways of improving the design and methodology of further similar experiments.
In working toward a closer analysis of the experiences of youth citizenship, this chapter seeks to reconcile the concerns of two distinct discursive approaches to citizenship. The focus on civic competence in youth studies literature has been widely criticized for its narrow view of youth as uneducated and disengaged citizens in potentia. The central concern of such studies has been whether young people will be equipped with the essential knowledge to function as adults in democratic society, rather than how they actually do function as living citizens in everyday life. The focus on competence highlights the need to understand what it is young people know about how to be a citizen, yet it does not fully recognise how knowledge may be gleaned through the practice or doing of civic activities. Current discourses characterise the contemporary citizen in context, exploring how changing structures shape citizenship identities. Typologies such as Bang’s ‘expert citizen’ and Isin’s ‘neurotic citizen’ rightly argue that the scope for the doing of civic practice is limited by the reality of life within rapidly changing geo-political and social structures. They are less able to thoroughly consider how the individual’s own knowing and doing of civic life develop more nuanced and individual expressions of being a citizen. In examining the merits of these discourses, this chapter examines how these three dimensions of the being, doing and knowing of citizenship combine in developing youth citizenship identities. Further to this, the chapter discusses a preliminary methodology of a micro-sociological qualitative approach to understanding youth citizenship identities. In qualitatively examining young individuals’ own understandings of how they negotiate participation within and outside of formal democratic structures, this methodology allows for a more nuanced explanation of what constitutes working civic competence(s) and how it may be connected to citizenship identity.
Alberto José Viralhadas Ferreira
In the 1980’s, at the edge of new digital media art and before massive online communication was available, communities of amateur musicians used 8-bit systems for sophisticated graphical demonstrations on extremely limited hardware. These communities were part of a sub-culture labelled as the ‘demo scene,’ which served as the hotbed for amateur musicians that, encouraged by the same DIY paradigm that fuelled the Punk movement, used sound loops to reformulate and repurpose mainstream music in a customised and technologically accessible manner. A community coalesced around music as an open technological artefact and pioneered the subversion of the traditional music industry production and distribution models as early as the 1980’s. Through shared and specific ethics and values, tracker communities encourage competitive learning that implicitly encourages a ‘tinkering’ approach to education. With a unique usage of cultural bricolage as a primary compositional methodology, their equalitarian principle of training as a peer activity, primarily based on common purpose and neutral authority, still stands as the anathema of artistic collectivisation, even after successive technological advancements. This chapter will focus on the sociological principles behind tracker communities and the relation between the digital music composition and the role of cultural artefacts in digital communities, especially in the light of post-modern music composition techniques and online music sharing.
Virgínia Laís Souza
This research aims to analyse how the stigmata of the body have been perpetuated since the freak shows of the nineteenth century. During this period, exhibits of monstrous bodies began to be used to entertain the audience, becoming particularly popular in Europe and the United States. The main hypothesis of this research is that the use of the image of a body that is viewed as marginal in society, further reinforces its stigmatization, and this trend becomes stronger when allied to a market logic of profits and to reach masses. Representations conveyed by different contexts are discussed in the present research (especially in show, film and art). In terms of methodology, two ways of constructing the monstrous body were highlighted: the first and most common understands the body as eccentric product with the ability to increase the popularity ratings of the media where they are presented; the second avoids stigmatizing the body as abnormal by highlighting their singularities and proposing a redefinition of stereotypes. The theoretical discussion is based on research that has discussed the relations of the body with different environments, understanding the image of the body as a construction and never as a presupposition. The expected result is to collaborate with debates that study the role of the body in the society, without, however, failing to recognize the body as bodymedia.
The gap existing between the democratic system and the individual can distance a person from participating in the political process. Principles that form the foundation of a democratic system can also be applied to everyday life, and conversely, individual life experiences can shape the political process. Interactive, experiential workshops play a large role in linking these two spheres, connecting the individual to the system through the group process. The Betzavta seminar, invented and developed by the Adam Institute in Israel, uses games and interactive activities to explore the democratic decision-making process in a more personal way, thereby giving the participants a more fundamental understanding of democracy. This helps them to view democracy not only as a system in which they function but as a way of life, in which they can reflect on their own roles and responsibilities. The Betzavta seminar best functions as an immersive experience, rather than a series of disjointed workshops. However, in this chapter, one example of such a workshop will be detailed and analyzed to show the connection between the individual, group, and democratic system. The very writing of a paper to prove this point negates its thesis, and therefore an experience of the Betzavta methodology is highly recommended.
Patrick E. Sharbaugh
With more than 30% of the world’s population now connected to the Internet, online personal privacy has become a top concern among citizens of many nations and regions, and it has become clear that attitudes about and conceptions of online privacy represent a nexus of significant change in the construction of culture and society. These attitudes and conceptions may differ significantly across cultures and national borders, therefore examining different notions of privacy may better enable us to understand the changes underway. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, I undertook an exploratory study into two research questions: 1) How do Internet users in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam understand and conceive of online personal privacy?, and 2) How concerned are they about online privacy? Rather than imposing Western definitions of privacy on local respondents, I attempted to infer a definition of Vietnamese privacy values and conceptions from scratch using methods designed to avoid priming respondents with non-local perceptions of the research topic. The results reveal a more complex conception of personal privacy than those predicted for Vietnam by Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. In Vietnam, privacy appears to be chiefly understood as a means of safeguarding valuable personal data on the Internet from dangerous individuals who seek to obtain it for malign purposes, rather than a fundamental right, an inviolable aspect of self, or a claim by individuals to be left alone and free from surveillance. Vietnamese appear unconcerned about governmental or organisational scrutiny, and seem to have little regard for privacy policies or regulations. In this, the Vietnamese conception of online privacy appears to differ significantly from longstanding notions of privacy that have informed discourse, social practice, and regulatory efforts in the Western hemisphere for more than a century and which continue to influence current debates and policy decisions.
The reference point for the following discussion is that Western culture's concept of feminine Beauty has a genuine function in visual arguments. The purpose of this chapter is to show one such function through the allegorical uses of depictions of truth. One of the most common Western iconographic representations of truth is through a beautiful, naked, radiant woman with her right hand holding up a torch or a mirror. The Iconologia (1593) by the Italian iconographer Cesare Ripa, Truth Unveiled by Time (1652) by the Italian sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini, and The Truth (1870) by the French painter Jules Joseph Lefebvre are a few examples. These artworks communicate a visual argument while using the allegorical function of the image of truth as a mean to illustrate an abstract concept or idea. This chapter analyses how visual arguments have made use of iconographic conventions of truth in order to accommodate for more complex concepts and ideas. The methodological approach is akin to Wittgenstein’s approach to philosophy, i.e., in order to understand the function of beauty in visual argumentation in general, one has to look to the actual uses to which the aesthetic and argumentative vocabulary is put. More specifically, one should focus attention on what actually does make the notion of ‘beauty’ function argumentatively in specific contexts. In order to see how beauty is adhered to truth, one must analyse its actual usages. Thus, the Dreyfus affair will be discussed as a case study, in which the allegorical representation of the figure of Truth has a substantial argumentative function.
Art can shift our understanding of time by incorporating a durational component, or by using time as a material that can form and transform. Performance work by artists such as Tehching Hseih and Marina Abramovic speaks directly to these concerns where time emerges as a convention that can be related to and manipulated in multiple ways. In my recent PhD research in the textiles studio at Australian National University, I investigated time as a medium within my art practice. In this chapter, I will discuss one project – writing an exegesis about my PhD research – where I used time reflexively in combination with writing, eggshells, ink and alphabet stamps. I structured a process for writing around the time limitations of caring for my two-year-old daughter. Every second day, for three months, I would write 200 words in the time she was bathed and put to bed by her father, approximately one hour. On the day in between, in the same time, I would stamp the writing onto eggshells with a set of alphabet stamps and inkpad. For the following three months, each second day I revisited each piece of writing to ‘infuse’ it with the Buddhist concept, ‘dependent arising,’ that informed the methodology of my research. ‘Dependent arising’ refers to the way things exist in dependence upon other things, relationally, causally and in flux. On alternate days I stamped this Buddhist infused text. In this chapter, I will describe the project 10,000 Words, with images of the discreet texts as visual works and the final art work, an installation of the eggshells with accompanying sound of them being ground in a circular movement. I will discuss how the relationship to time constructed by this project explores a nexus of temporality and subjectivity.
Peter W. Ferretto
The process of designing space is a topic that paradoxically architects and the architectural profession seldom address or even discuss, preferring to leave the creative process shrouded in a veil of mystery, further enhancing the notion of the architect as the original genius. Should they engage in any critical debate their readings tend to diverge from the subject matter, become blurred by layers of justifications and typically revert to a diagram that crystalizes their conception of space; a formulaic two dimensional representation, commonly drawn, as an electrical circuit board notation, that acts as the universally abused term, ‘concept’ of the proposal. Contemporary architecture has become defined by the ‘diagram’, where architectural diagrams today dictate how spaces are generated, i.e. by default. This paradigm shift, both professionally and in academia, has resulted in ‘space’ frequently becoming a by-product material: an operative reaction to an abstract ‘diagram’. This chapter seeks to demystify the design process and explore an alternative way to design space, namely Cast Space. Cast Space, as a design methodology, purges the design process of preconceived notions and starts empirically, formulating space without relying on traditional assumptions such as arranging walls within a plane, rather allowing designers to conceive space negatively in the process of transforming space from a mechanical reaction into an intellectual action. This chapter will explore how the casting process allows architects to venture outside their comfort zone. To cast a space is simultaneously a physical act and a metaphysical process; the designer has to interpret a 3D idea and translate it into a negative reality. Compared to the conventional canons of designing space via representational tools, casting avoids representation focusing on the fabrication of a mold – the mental construct of transforming an absent receptacle into a present form.