The rise of posthumanism has had an undeniable effect on literary expressions of monstrosity: that which was once defined as Other, set in contrast to human subjectivity, has gradually been incorporated into human society without forfeiting its inhuman (or superhuman) qualities. In the age of the cyborg and the mutant, the monster has been demystified and made psychologically complex, rather than adhere to the archetypal ‘motiveless malignancy.’ Nowhere is this shift in perspective more apparent than in contemporary visual adaptations of fairy tales: in television and Japanese anime, in film and in comics, the body of the monster has been hybridised, the supernatural fear they are meant to evoke diluted by the pronunciation of their human qualities. Though their monstrosity is still physically inscribed upon them and invariably become visible to the naked eye, the spatial boundary that once separated human society from the realm of the monstrous (such as the foreboding woods) has dissolved completely; the monster has become a functioning member of community it is meant to prey upon. This chapter will explore physical/visual configurations of monstrosity in four fairy tale adaptations taken from different media: Grimm (television), Red Riding Hood (film), Fables (comics) and The Path (video games). Despite the vast differences in techniques and methodology, these visual media are uniform in their representation of the monster as a chimera of human and inhuman traits, and in their demonstration of new sensibilities towards depictions of the Other.
Shawn Edrei and Meyrav Koren-Kuik
For the last decades, intimate partner violence has become recognized as a major social problem. In Portugal, domestic violence was criminalized in 2007 and a national victim’s support network (e.g. shelters) is being implemented. Researches highlight couple violence against women as a serious problem, putting at risk victim’s autonomy. Pence and Paymar’s Power and Control Wheel core is formed by tactics of power and control mostly related with psychological, emotional, economic or social violence. Control tactics are efficient and violent without physical or sexual violence. Victimization processes – namely intimate terrorism situations – are a cause of victim’s isolation and dependency. Recent research focuses violent relationship breaking up processes. This chapter presents results of ‘Women victimized by intimate partner violence: practices and representations concerning violence’, a qualitative research project coordinated by Professor Maria das Dores Guerreiro (CIES, IUL-ISCTE) and carried out at CIES, IUL-ISCTE. The research focuses on women victimized by intimate partners who have left abusive relationships. These women were supported by Associação Portuguesa de Mulheres contra a Violência (AMCV), a Portuguese non-governmental organisation. Research aims to acknowledge processes of victimization within couples and the legitimacy of practices of violence across women’s lives. Methodologically, data was collected through five semi-structured interviews and the subsequent content analysis. Interviewees attend Hipátia, a group of women survivors of domestic violence, promoted by AMCV. Interviewees aged between 33 to 53 years old. Women discourses emphasize the importance of specialized professionals as key to the recognition of violence by the victim, reconstruction and definition of a life project after leaving an abusive relationship.
Edited by Nate Hinerman and Holly Lynn Baumgartner
The emerging development-security nexus continues to influence both policy and scholarly debate regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid. At the same time, the heightened frequency of humanitarian intervention means that aid is increasingly being delivered during violent conflict, adding an additional layer of complexity to programme design and implementation. Although aid has a rich literature exploring its effectiveness, scholars do not yet fully understand its impact on conflict. Without such understanding, donors may slip away from the well-intentioned sprit of aid and risk, at best, wasting money, and at worst, prolonging war. This study examines how aid can influence violent conflict. Using a comparative case study methodology, the investigation considers the impact of aid on actors in a conflict and the factors affecting its development. The Ethiopian famine in 1984-6 occurred during a protracted civil war between the government and various separatist factions. A misguided commitment to neutrality and charity enabled aid to be used as a weapon of war. In contemporary Afghanistan, donors have moved in the opposite direction and attempted to connect aid to political development and foreign policy, even using the military to implement projects and explicitly linking development to counterinsurgency objectives. These cases conclude that aid is inherently political, especially in conflict, and the perception of recipients and other parties is more important than the intentions of donors. Aid bestows legitimacy, so donors must ensure that they empower those actors who do not perpetuate conflict. Ultimately, this necessitates a re-examination of the historic principle of neutrality in development work, lest aid fall short of its good intentions.
This chapter is intended to examine the main causal factors that propel election related violence in Africa following the controversial election results that were released in Kenya and the disputed electoral process in Tanzania during the presidential election that were held in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The recent elections that took place during the years 2005 in Tanzania, 2007 in Kenya and 2011 in Cameroon proved some diverse outcomes. Kenya and Tanzania ended up in a violent situation that even threatened to destabilise the countries and almost brought them to a collapse. On the other side of the continent, Cameroon seemed to have enjoyed a peaceful outcome, despite alleged irregularities and some malpractices during the electoral process with little or no post-election violence. This chapter will investigate the underlying causes of the electoral violence, and the divergent outcome. The reason for these comparative studies is to understand why election violence occurred in Kenya and Tanzania and not in Cameroon. The results proved that elections in Kenya, Tanzania and Cameroon are far from the norms of elections in advanced democracies. Analysis proved that the violence that occurred in Kenya was as a result of the perception that the incumbent stole the elections. In the case of Cameroon and Tanzania, the electoral process was ‘made’ by the government giving the incumbent an added advantage. The significant difference with Cameroon is that the electoral system in Cameroon gives way for smaller parties to be accepted in the parliament while those of Kenya and Tanzania prevents regional parties. The first part of this chapter is the methodology and theoretical framework; while the second part will be the empirical findings and analysis.