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Anna Dow

It is a vast shame that, despite an increasing demand for interdisciplinary study, there is still a somewhat stringent attitude towards any study that affiliates itself equally among disciplines rather than claiming to predominantly represent one alone. In medieval studies it is particularly difficult to examine manuscripts exclusively, or even primarily, from either a literary or art historical perspective, when the objects in question quite often encompass both. In fifteenth-century illuminated manuscripts image and text shared an intertwining relationship, and I propose to examine this relationship by focusing on the manuscript as a narrative object in its entirety. In the Très Riches Heures, designed and partially completed by the Limbourg brothers before 1416, lavish imagery encompasses the narrative world of the brothers’ patron, Jean de Berry. Literary themes exist on a variety of planes in this instance, from the inclusion of narrative references such as the Iliad or Berry’s personal folk tale Mélusine, to the narrative created around Berry’s own world and the creation of folio space that was deliberately intended to expand the reader’s imagination beyond the usual narrative confines of the image frames. In a similar vein, the artist of René’s Livre de Coeur illustrates the text in a manner that not only accompanies the narrative, but also incorporates its own form of literary criticism and interpretation, and in England the Ellesmere Manuscript, perhaps the most famous early edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, uses its imagery to signal new innovations in literary mobility and the personal reception of the book. A conjoined approach between literary and art historical studies, then, can shed a vital light on the study of medieval manuscript reception, and enable a better understanding of medieval approaches towards visual literacy.

Elizabeth L. Heck

Citizen journalism is a term often fraught with tensions surrounding definition, particularly since the evolution and accessibility of digital media tools, and the increase of user generated content (UGC). This chapter explores an initiative that is partnered with local community broadcasters, and engages with citizen journalism as part of a ‘pioneering new media journalism’ program. This professionally facilitated program uses new media technologies as a way of sharing stories from the community, and explores genres of traditional journalistic storytelling to those of a more personal autobiographical nature. Furthermore, it studies the importance of such facilitation in regard to issues of ethics and story co-creation and how the citizen journalist defines themselves and their role in the community. Questions arise as to how these grassroots stories can be shared, whether through radio broadcast and the internet or the mixed media of traditional print and QR codes. Using a case study methodology, this chapter addresses the experiments and learning generated by the various ways of telling these stories. In the process, it adopts the concept of participatory collaboration through the exploration of the experimental nature of community media and collaborative storytelling in such a program, to contribute to building and creating community narratives.

Ariella Van Luyn

Marcus Foth, Helen Klaebe and Greg Hearn state that ‘experiential narratives [those that combine public history, art and storytelling] are required to conceptualise and characterise the qualities of the city and to reawaken connection with place.’ However, little attention has been given to location-based narratives in regional areas. The recent development of digital tools that allow users to read narratives in-situ—such as Quick Response (QR) codes and interactive maps—offer new opportunities for engaging with stories of place. This chapter will examine a storytelling project, Fostering Storytelling in the Tropics, which uses digital tools to produce a series of locative narratives, and aims to strengthen reading and writing communities in North Queensland, Australia. As part of a larger project examining how creative writing academics can foster university-community engagement, emerging local writers will compose a series of stories set in specific locations around Townsville, Australia. Readers will use digital tools to read the stories in the location they are set. This chapter will contextualise the project in the initial stages of its development by analysing how locative literature can aid in the development of textual communities: the ‘reading, writing and publishing communities that form around printed texts.’ Participant Action Research methodology offers a framework for understanding how the creative writer-academic can facilitate community building through the use of digital tools.

Ekavi-Louise Whitlock-Blundell

This chapter deals with the empirical and theoretical shift from designing for the theatre to designing for a narrative environment, and to what extent a design for the stage is a narrative environment. If a theatrical text is a narrative, is a theatrical stage a narrative environment? First of all, let us define what a narrative environment is. It is a space, whether physical or virtual, in which stories can unfold. On the other hand, a theatre stage is an environment where stories can unfold, but dictated by speech and movement. Stories unfold in the theatre, usually in the form of a narration provided by the text, but the narrative can be provided by the stage design. In the case of a narrative environment the narration is either the space itself, or the space is being used as a major means to narrate the story. So really the space has the potential of acting both as the narrator and as the mouthpiece of the narrative. The major difference between scenography and a narrative environment design is that in the first case the text usually dictates the parameters of the design, whereas in narrative environment design the creative process is manipulated in order to fulfil a purpose. What is important to consider is how the interpretation of a narrative and the interpretation of a text/narration differ in methodology, outcome and the different ways the audience perceives and receives in each case.

Paulo Roberto Almeida

In his discursive way to construct his utterings, the subject selects the words and linguistic resources at his disposal, resources that are constructed socio-historically by other consciousnesses of which he is a part. This selection is lead by his evaluative judgement facing a particular topic at stake in interactional activity, loaded with expressiveness (way of viewing the world, value judgement, emotions). Taking as theoretical resources the concept of culture, this viewed as constituted in/by hybridism, the concept of literacies and the perspective of a ‘worker’ subject, this chapter aims at reflecting about the process of construction of narratives - literacy stories - produced by students enrolled in a training course for Portuguese language teachers. We focus the subjectivity manifestations, positions of authorship and their implications in the process of identity constitution. We think of identity constitution adopting the concept of identity as subject position; i.e., the position assumed by the subject will lead him to face the world from a particular position according to the images and specific concepts which become relevant inside the discursive practices. Upon this theoretical and methodological perspective, we will focus on the construction of subjective positions into a discursive process; in other words, the constitution of an identity position from the very constitution/construction of a position of authorship.

Sinéad McShane

This chapter introduces a research project within Ulster University, which is in its very early stages. It seeks to make a significant contribution to our understanding of the role of older people and storytelling in the on-going conflict transformation process in Northern Ireland. The generation impacted by the conflict in and about Northern Ireland (40 years old and over), are ageing into mid- and late-adulthood in a context where the legacy of conflict remains important. Whilst no formal truth commission has been established, grass roots ‘storytelling’ projects have emerged from within the voluntary and community sector as one way of addressing the past. Projects use various terms to describe their storytelling work, such as ‘testimony’, ‘oral history’ and ‘positive encounter and dialogue’. Storytelling touches hearts and minds, and can be a powerful strategy and tool to help communities deal with the past, present and future. The overall aim of the research is to investigate the motivations of the ‘conflict generation’ to tell their stories and the impact of their doing so. This chapter sets out the proposed research methodology, which will involve a selection of storytelling groups associated with INCORE’s (International Conflict Research Institute) ‘Accounts of the Conflict Archive’1 and others of a similar dialogue and encounter nature. This chapter gives an overview of relevant literature and a timeline for implementation.

Mira Marcinów and Fátima Alves

Comparing Portugal and Poland, in this chapter we reveal and discuss the socio-cultural processes that we believe to underlie the impacts of the confrontation and coexistence of plural models used to explain and deal with madness, between tradition and modernity. Based on a study carried out in Portugal, we compare how lay people explain and deal with madness and mental suffering in both countries. Results show that the concept of mental illness includes one of illness (there are ill people), and the one of non-illness (mental suffering is not an illness). Lay rationalities about mental suffering in Portugal and Poland also reflect the process of psychiatrisation (medicalisation) of societies: lay people use the professional taxonomies, but often with different meanings. In Portugal and Poland, those rationalities categorise people into three kinds: the ill people, the weak-people (these may turn into ill-people) and the strong-people (these succeed in the combat with mental suffering, a normal event during life). In what concerns mental illness, almost all respondents, both Portuguese and Poles, identify such disease as depression and schizophrenia. Moreover, there were also differences: only Portuguese talk about dementia, and only Poles talk about alcoholism as mental illness. We also compare the identified causes of mental suffering and the ways that people use to deal with it - the itineraries of care. The results we gathered, only possible with the qualitative methodology, exceed results of previous researches about social perception and representation of people with mental illness. In fact, it occurs that these narratives contain wide conceptions about the different level of mental suffering and craziness, with modern and traditional elements.

Karen McInnes and Nicola Birdsey

Play as a concept is complex and often contested despite the fact that it is claimed that we know play when we see it. There have been considerable attempts by theorists to define play such as by: category, typology, criteria, and continuum. However, it has been stated that it is difficult to have a common conceptualisation or definition of play. While there is a considerable body of literature on defining play by theorists, there is far less literature on understanding play from the perspectives of different professionals, parents, adolescents, and children. There is a growing research base of early years practitioners’ understanding of play and how this relates to practice; however, there is a lack of research on the understanding of play from the perspective of other professionals. There is also limited research on parents’ and adolescents’ perspectives of play. There is, however, an emerging literature on children’s perspectives of play but it is not yet known how their perspectives differ from the perceptions of adults. It is important to have a shared understanding of play for three reasons: so that there is a common language with which to talk about play, so that the same phenomenon is investigated by researchers, and so that there is clarity in relation to play practice. This chapter draws on a series of case studies which have employed a range of methodologies including: questionnaires, interviews and experiments to identify perceptions of play in relation to the aforementioned groups. As well as identifying similarities and differences in perceptions of play across the different groups, the implications for practice and future research are identified.

Fulya Menderes

Urban experience is a process formed with the city dweller’s interactions of all parameters of space. In this chapter, the relation between playing phenomena, experience and time is held. The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of fragmented perceptions of time as a consequence of identification of metropolitan life with speed and movement concepts. Dialectics of body with experience and time are examined through the playing theme, which was argued to be a form of experience and a special form of communication as well. Thus, spatiality of playing actions and time with the phenomenon of place (dwelling) is critical. Taking one’s relationship with time and space as the focus, settling in the present time is the moment of existence for a dweller that is aware of how time flows within the past and future. Therefore, spatial experience is related to settling in the present time. From this point of view, a place where dwellers can or cannot settle in present time was researched. Personal observations and mapping in the metropolis of Istanbul was used as the methodology. Eventually, homogeneity of temporality in urban space prevented the dialectic between the city and its dwellers. The functional organisation of urban planning tended to eliminate differences to obtain spatial experiences by creating homogeneous spaces. Together with its obstacle of extending to the urban experience, the unreadable character of the present time of produced spaces within their past and future brought the perception of time to a standstill with its fragmented existence. From this point of view, with guiding playing phenomena that invited dwellers to its own space and time, various urban toys were designed to set up the spatiality of playing in the metropolis to gather dwellers in the same place and settle them in the present time to extend out of their usual experiences.

Anna-Marie Jansen van Vuuren and Jane D. Stamp

The focus of this chapter is to compare the traditional storytelling narrative model of the Hero’s Journey, a popular structure in screenwriting, to a chemical engineering methodology. In chemical engineering, cheap raw materials are transformed into a complete product which is more useful and valuable to society. In the same way, in the Hero’s Journey story structure, through overcoming various tasks the hero is refined and transformed. Thus the narrative structure with its roots in ancient mythology can be modelled on a multiproduct time dependent batch process that is used in a traditional beer brewing method. When one applies this to the narrative of brewing - the malt will serve as the protagonist, and similar to the protagonist in the Hero’s Journey who faces many obstacles on his way of achieving the resurrection, the malt in the batch process has to go through various steps to become the elixir. Both the malt and the main character of a story need to go on a journey of transformation to become the finished product. The beer making procedure follows a recipe and even though the processing stages are essentially the same, similar to the process of change of the protagonist within the Hero’s Journey – each hero will undergo processing in a slightly different way – and come out as a distinct product at the end. When one considers brewing from the point of view of a storyteller, the complexity of the process is made available to a broader audience. In comparing these seemingly unrelated processes – the art of brewing is revealed. Often viewed as a scientific process without the nuance of creativity, the comparison with storytelling establishes clearly that it is an art form on its own.