In recent years, thanks to the rapid advance of mobile technologies which lend portable devices great computing power, making them affordable at the same time, the development of applications and tools for augmented reality has found new life. The proposal is a reflection on current best practices in the field of augmented reality learning as a branch of mobile learning and on the technologies and methodologies that will build its future. Each of the major players in the global scene of the technology field has already produced or is preparing to produce powerful and economical solutions, following different philosophies. Variety, availability and affordability are three elements that give this technology a chance to be adopted in educational settings, not only in adult education, but also in cultural heritage education and even in the classroom. Many have employed these tools in such contexts, with analyses of the results obtained, often conducted by computer science or engineering faculties, but it is rare to find studies based and conducted on sound pedagogical and didactical foundations, and we will focus on these. We will analyse the technologies and methodologies used and we will reflect on the strengths and the issues that they present. As a natural conclusion of this work, we will finally share and discuss a proposed theoretical and methodological framework that can guide future experiences of augmented reality learning.
Corrado Petrucco and Daniele Agostini
Ginette Roberge and Huguette Beaudoin
As a result of the prevalent reported negative effects of bullying between peers, numerous initiatives that strive to counter school bullying have surfaced. Research has shown that more effective approaches have consisted of cooperative actions which target different levels of school governance including administrators, teachers, parents, students and community partners. In the Canadian province of Ontario, the Ministry of Education has recently introduced legislation that aims to reduce school bullying through a preventative approach. This approach mandates policy development by all school governing authorities when faced with bullying behaviours among students as well as the creation of positive learning environments by rewarding student-led anti-bullying initiatives. The first phase of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the ensuing anti-bullying policies in Ontario in order to determine to which extent they adhere to effective anti-bullying strategies as identified by extant research. The second phase will consist of an impact study of these policies in Ontario schools following the Accepting Schools Act, in order to determine their degree of effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is therefore twofold: 1) to analyze the extent to which policy content is actually applied in schools; and 2) to analyze the effectiveness of the application of policy content in reducing school bullying on a larger scale. In order to achieve this dual purpose, the authors will describe a methodology that accentuates the process, the perceptions and the preoccupations of members of the school community in terms of school bullying between students and other members of the school community. Checkland’s soft systems theory will be applied to the endeavour to improve problematic situations, namely preventing and confronting school bullying, as proposed by Jacques Lapointe. The results of the study will expose the expression of varied insights from school professionals in terms of countering school bullying. In sum, this chapter therefore aims to describe the soft systems methodology and explains its pertinence to an impact study of the Ontario Accepting Schools Act (ASA).
Amber Anna Colvin
Edited by Nuria Rodríguez Ortega, Fátima Díez-Platas and Seppo Kuivakari
Ethics for Animal Welfare, Veterinary Medicine, and Conservation
Edited by Bernard Rollin and Barbara de Mori
The Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research is an international and interdisciplinary scientific publication. It publishes the results of original peer-reviewed research, technical studies, and reviews that bring to the light the ethical issues involved in all dimensions of animal welfare, ranging from theoretical to applied contributions. Emphasis is placed on research that explores practical ethical issues related to animal care and management in veterinary medicine, conservation, companion and laboratory animals, animals involved in agriculture, sport, applied ethology and welfare science. The journal also publishes papers that examine and discuss ethical frames, tools and methodologies applied to moral issues in the human/animal relationship.
Edited by Nate Hinerman and Holly Lynn Baumgartner
Thomas Kronschläger and Eva Sommer
Ever since the implementation of the LHC at CERN, visions of apocalyptical scenarios, involving ‘black holes’, ‘dark matter’, ‘strange matter’ and so forth, were propagated by the media. The field in which CERN is operating has been raising concerns and anxieties, leading to several lurid newspaper articles in many European countries; it even resulted in an action for injunction at the European Court of Human Rights, filed by a private institution. In an interdisciplinary qualitative approach, drawing on Keller’s methodology ‘sociology of knowledge approach to discourse’ (SKAD), the public discourse on CERN’s LHC will be analysed. Using a sample of journalistic texts, underlying patterns will be classified, categorised and analysed separately. The SKAD approach seems to be suitable for analysis here, given the problem of distribution of knowledge appears to be a relevant factor.
This chapter explores how embodied, lived heavy metal music spaces are produced by and through the exigencies of subversive movement and performance. By drawing upon Thrift’s (2007) work on ‘non-representational theory’, McCormack’s (2008) research on moving bodies, and Driver’s (2011) concept of subcultural embodiment, I examine the ways in which subversive performances and movement such as moshing are integral to the production of creating meaningful heavy metal musical spaces within the Leeds metal scene. Within these spaces fans are able to grasp, touch, play with and feel all the contours of being part of an underground subculture. Lastly, the chapter discusses the use of a ‘moshography’, a performative methodology that emphasises the ways in which movement, embodiment, gender, and spaces messily intersect and intertwine in everyday encounters within the Leeds metal scene.
Understanding Maasai perceptions of whiteness can give insight in how and why images based on racial constructs continue to be (re)produced. Embedded in anthropological methods I used Q methodology with illiterate people to create detailed mindmaps of their images of ‘the other’ which can be compared to make visible more general social perspectives. The image that Maasai from a small village in Tanzania have of what they call ‘whites’ is remarkably positive and consistent among a variety of demographic categories. ‘Whites’ are characterised as people of God, having a white heart. They are described as extremely capable and virtuous, which distinguishes them from Maasai. However, they also share with Maasai a certain sociability and familiarity. Under the influence of increased interaction, negative characteristics and mistrust are added to the extremely positive image, however without replacing the positive traits. The stubborn character of the positive characteristics in the Maasai’ views leads to an overall contradictory image of whites as having a double character. These views are reflected in a mythological story that explains the differences and similarities between Maasai and ‘whites’ while prescribing and legitimating their relationship and behaviour towards each other in terms of a mythical blood relationship. As is the case with tourists’ image of Maasai as ‘noble savages,’ Maasai’ idea of ‘whites’ as capable and virtuous, has an ideological function. It is a mythical image that was never constructed to adequately describe ‘the other’ but created to explain, legitimise and cope with the position of ‘the self’ vis-à-vis ‘the other.’
Jacque Lynn Foltyn
For 2,500 years, the members of western civilization have been searching for the ‘laws’ that separate a beautiful face or figure from more ordinary ones. The human face and body have been inscribed in a circle, spread-eagled on a grid, quantified mathematically, and analysed geometrically. Today, a cadre of evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists and cosmetic surgeons, intent on uncovering beauty’s secret formula, link the look of beauty with reproductive fitness, insisting that good looks require minute symmetries, precise waist-to-hip ratios, jaw types, skin shades, hair textures and lengths, etc., and contending that computer programs have allowed them to construct the very face of female beauty. This chapter argues that most of these declarations are pseudoscience masquerading as scientific ‘fact’ and that the ‘science of beauty’ continually advances new theories that refute previous ones, giving short shrift to claims for universality. It provides interdisciplinary evidence from the humanities, social sciences, biological and neurosciences, and features interviews with some of the leading scientists of vision and the brain about how what is proposed as beauty ‘rules’ is largely subjective, runs contrary to historical and biological evidence, and can be attributed to more obvious sources: attempts to validate the theorists’ own taste, the homogenization processes of worldwide media, and flawed methodologies.