In recent years, thanks to the rapid advance of mobile technologies which lend portable devices great computing power, making them affordable at the same time, the development of applications and tools for augmented reality has found new life. The proposal is a reflection on current best practices in the field of augmented reality learning as a branch of mobile learning and on the technologies and methodologies that will build its future. Each of the major players in the global scene of the technology field has already produced or is preparing to produce powerful and economical solutions, following different philosophies. Variety, availability and affordability are three elements that give this technology a chance to be adopted in educational settings, not only in adult education, but also in cultural heritage education and even in the classroom. Many have employed these tools in such contexts, with analyses of the results obtained, often conducted by computer science or engineering faculties, but it is rare to find studies based and conducted on sound pedagogical and didactical foundations, and we will focus on these. We will analyse the technologies and methodologies used and we will reflect on the strengths and the issues that they present. As a natural conclusion of this work, we will finally share and discuss a proposed theoretical and methodological framework that can guide future experiences of augmented reality learning.
Corrado Petrucco and Daniele Agostini
Ginette Roberge and Huguette Beaudoin
As a result of the prevalent reported negative effects of bullying between peers, numerous initiatives that strive to counter school bullying have surfaced. Research has shown that more effective approaches have consisted of cooperative actions which target different levels of school governance including administrators, teachers, parents, students and community partners. In the Canadian province of Ontario, the Ministry of Education has recently introduced legislation that aims to reduce school bullying through a preventative approach. This approach mandates policy development by all school governing authorities when faced with bullying behaviours among students as well as the creation of positive learning environments by rewarding student-led anti-bullying initiatives. The first phase of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the ensuing anti-bullying policies in Ontario in order to determine to which extent they adhere to effective anti-bullying strategies as identified by extant research. The second phase will consist of an impact study of these policies in Ontario schools following the Accepting Schools Act, in order to determine their degree of effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is therefore twofold: 1) to analyze the extent to which policy content is actually applied in schools; and 2) to analyze the effectiveness of the application of policy content in reducing school bullying on a larger scale. In order to achieve this dual purpose, the authors will describe a methodology that accentuates the process, the perceptions and the preoccupations of members of the school community in terms of school bullying between students and other members of the school community. Checkland’s soft systems theory will be applied to the endeavour to improve problematic situations, namely preventing and confronting school bullying, as proposed by Jacques Lapointe. The results of the study will expose the expression of varied insights from school professionals in terms of countering school bullying. In sum, this chapter therefore aims to describe the soft systems methodology and explains its pertinence to an impact study of the Ontario Accepting Schools Act (ASA).
Invested with the research methodologies of material culture scholarship and the ‘physical’ nature of ‘embodied practice’, this chapter investigates fashion design processes as an academic activity. It considers how practice-led or embodied practice can inform design evolution and develop students’ design-confidence. The chapter shows the diversity and possibility afforded to fashion outcomes read through the framework of a task entitled Fragments: Cloth and Memory, delivered at Whitehouse Institute of Design, Australia, Sydney Campus. At the heart of this chapter lie a series of student designs; textile narratives and fashion collections, where the particular learning and teaching strategies engaged in the studio prompted very personal and unique approaches to clothing and cloth. Real engagement and embodiment of ideals is apparent in these works. As physical, historical, emotive and mechanical memory were investigated and ensuing processes applied to the humble materiality of cotton and silk, new and innovative textiles were created. These textile experiments possess additional meaning as they evolve into fashion-clothing though their association with intimacy, and develop as narratives through garments shadowing the body, and by revealing a deeper personal significance for the designer. These original designs become protective amulets, graced with imitative magic through their personalised craftsmanship and materiality. With their own developing mechanical memory, they protect the torso, bosom and vulnerable throat; Fragments, Cloth and Memory at the heart of fashion.
Utilising an approach grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, this qualitative study illuminates the writing development of one child through the transition from home to school. Rather than focusing on a systemic linguistic development, which has dominated the educational language field, this project focused on the child’s sense of ‘agency and component processes.’ The subject of the study, ‘Tim,’ was observed over a four-year period. Data analysis was based on dualistic approach incorporating the inductive processes of ‘Grounded Theory’ and the analytical narrative procedures of ‘Performity Discourse.’ The resulting synthesis revealed the large amount of self-reflective talk involved in the child’s learning to write process, as well as his use of a multi-strategy approach. Rather than moving constantly through successive phases, as described by other researchers, ‘Tim’s’ development was also characterised by a cyclical and recursive pattern, utilising the writing strategies in a staged development of ‘Prephonemic Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and Approximation to Adult Convention.’ It would appear that young children have a heightened sense of the complexity of writing, and given the opportunity make continued ‘approximations’ to attain adult conventionality and complexity. This study also revealed the key role caregivers play in fostering a child’s sense of ‘habitus’ and that writing for young children should be cultivated and not imposed. The study as whole also reveals the means by which a child’s pre-school writing can be supported in the first year of school.
Amber Anna Colvin
Edited by Nuria Rodríguez Ortega, Fátima Díez-Platas and Seppo Kuivakari
Ethics for Animal Welfare, Veterinary Medicine, and Conservation
Edited by Bernard Rollin and Barbara de Mori
The Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research is an international and interdisciplinary scientific publication. It publishes the results of original peer-reviewed research, technical studies, and reviews that bring to the light the ethical issues involved in all dimensions of animal welfare, ranging from theoretical to applied contributions. Emphasis is placed on research that explores practical ethical issues related to animal care and management in veterinary medicine, conservation, companion and laboratory animals, animals involved in agriculture, sport, applied ethology and welfare science. The journal also publishes papers that examine and discuss ethical frames, tools and methodologies applied to moral issues in the human/animal relationship.
Edited by Nate Hinerman and Holly Lynn Baumgartner
Oliver Bray and Peter Bray
This chapter invites discussion of the uncomfortable, but nonetheless delightful, differences and similarities of interpretation of the discipline-specific methodologies of performance and therapy. Using three case studies we consider the performance of trauma: as the replication of experience; its affect on the maker, the performer, and the audience of the work; and questions that touch upon power, perception, and interpretation; and, the psychological safety and ethics inherent in the reciprocal sharing of such powerful materials.
Kalyanlakshmi Chitta, Manish Khare and Savita Kulkarni
This chapter focuses on the methodologies adopted by individual work efforts in pursuit of chosen objectives while operating within the larger systemic framework and attempts to conceptualise the situations in which misalignment or conflict develops in individual and systemic goals and its resultant impact. The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is created primarily by the relationship among the parts. In essence, a system constitutes a set of interrelated components working together with a common objective- fulfilling some designated need. Every system has some objectives and prescribes an appropriate methodology to achieve them. Similarly, the individual components participating in the working of the system do so with some individual objectives. As long as objectives of the individual components are concentric to, and methodology adopted in pursuit of these objectives is in alignment with that prescribed by the system, the result will be synergetic. Misalignment in the functioning of individual stakeholders vis-à-vis the system arising on account of A. Conflict in short or long-term objectives, B. Adoption of inappropriate methods by individuals to realize their objectives, C. Inability of system to effectively put in place a mechanism to check anti-systemic individual practices, D. Adoption of sub-optimal strategies by system to realise its objectives that sets a self-defeating process into motion, E. Non-development of institutional environment fostering circular self-regulation through affiliation at informal levels among components beyond professional engagement. Will in the long-term culminate into a situation where individuals are able to advance their misaligned objectives at the expense of the system. This may be reflected in the distortion of internal dynamics wherein the overall value added by the system is lesser than the cumulative benefit (real or perceived) derived by individual stakeholders; a situation that the chapter understands is governed by anti-synergy.