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Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 2: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1825-1839

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 1: Index to the Public Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1814-1849

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Social History Source Collections

The present collection consists of 72 inventories.

Series:

Edited by Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt

Intermediality: the incorporation of digital technology into theatre practice, and the presence of film, television and digital media in contemporary theatre is a significant feature of twentieth-century performance. Presented here for the first time is a major collection of essays, written by the Theatre and Intermediality Research Group of the International Federation for Theatre Research, which assesses intermediality in theatre and performance. The book draws on the history of ideas to present a concept of intermediality as an integration of thoughts and medial processes, and it locates intermediality at the inter-sections situated in-between the performers, the observers and the confluence of media, medial spaces and art forms involved in performance at a particular moment in time. Referencing examples from contemporary theatre, cinema, television, opera, dance and puppet theatre, the book puts forward a thesis that the intermedial is a space where the boundaries soften and we are in-between and within a mixing of space, media and realities, with theatre providing the staging space for intermediality. The book places theatre and performance at the heart of the ‘new media’ debate and will be of keen interest to students, with clear relevance to undergraduates and post-graduates in Theatre Studies and Film and Media Studies, as well as the theatre research community.

The Faces of Freedom

The Manumission and Emancipation of Slaves in Old World and New World Slavery

Series:

Edited by Marc Kleijwegt

This volume is concerned with examining the histories of freed slaves in a variety of slave societies in the ancient and modern world, ranging from ancient Rome to the southern states of the US, the Caribbean, and Brazil to Africa in the aftermath of emancipation in the twentieth century. The aim of this work is to present a comparative forum for the study of freedpeople. By identifying what is separate and what is universal about freedpeople it hopes to add to a better understanding of the role and impact of manumission and emancipation in different slave societies.

Contributors include: Valentina Arena, Steeve Buckridge, Mariana Dantas, Marc Kleijwegt, Martin Klein, Rita Reynolds, Chandima Wickramasinghe, Swithin Wilmot, and Nigel Worden.

Series:

Edited by Tom Hubbard and R.D.S. Jack

If there is ocht in Scotland that’s worth ha’en / There is nae distance to which it’s unattached – Hugh MacDiarmid A realignment of Scottish literary studies is long overdue. The present volume counters the relative neglect of comparative literature in Scotland by exploring the fortunes of Scottish writing in mainland Europe, and, conversely, the engagement of Scottish literary intellectuals with European texts. Most of the contributions draw on the online Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation. Together they demonstrate the richness of the creative dialogue, not only between writers, but also between musicians and visual artists when they turn their attention to literature. The contributors to this volume cover most of Europe, including the German-speaking countries, Scandinavia, France, Catalonia, Portugal, Italy, the Balkans, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Russia. All Scotland's major literary languages – Gaelic, Scots, English and Latin – are featured in a continent-wide labyrinth that will repay further exploration.

Series:

Edited by Geoffrey V. Davis, Peter H. Marsden, Bénédicte Ledent and Marc Delrez

This collection has one central theoretical focus, viz. stock-taking essays on the present and future status of postcolonialism, transculturalism, nationalism, and globalization. These are complemented by ‘special’ angles of entry (e.g. ‘dharmic ethics’) and by considerations of the global impress of technology (African literary studies and the Internet). Further essays have a focus on literary-cultural studies in Australia (the South Asian experience) and New Zealand (ecopoetics; a Central European émigrée perspective on the nation; the unravelling of literary nationalism; transplantation and the trope of translation). The thematic umbrella, finally, covers studies of such topics as translation and interculturalism (the transcendental in Australian and Indian fiction; African Shakespeares; Canadian narrative and First-Nations story templates); anglophone / francophone relations (the writing and rewriting of crime fiction in Africa and the USA; utopian fiction in Quebec); and syncretism in post-apartheid South African theatre. Some of the authors treated in detail are: Janet Frame; Kapka Kassabova; Elizabeth Knox; Annamarie Jagose; Denys Trussell; David Malouf; Patrick White; Yasmine Gooneratne; Raja Rao; Robert Kroetsch; Thomas King; Chester Himes; Julius Nyerere; Ayi Kwei Armah; Léopold Sédar Senghor; Simon Njami; Abourahman Waberi; Lueen Conning; Nuruddin Farah; Athol Fugard; Frantz Fanon; Julia Kristeva; Shakespeare. The collection is rounded off by creative writing (prose, poetry, and drama) by Bernard Cohen, Jan Kemp, Vincent O’Sullivan, Andrew Sant, and Sujay Sood.

Various Authors & Editors

Economic History Library
Economisch-Historische Bibliotheek, Amsterdam

The Vereniging het Nederlands Economisch-Historisch Archief (Netherlands Economic History Records Association) of which the Economisch-Historische Bibliotheek forms a part, was founded in The Hague in 1914 and was broadly developed under the guidance of the Professor N.W. Posthumus. Since 1933, the library, which is not associated with any university library, has been located at Herengracht 220 in Amsterdam. Over the years, the collection has grown from 15,000 items in 1933 to more than 60,000 at present.

One of the aims of the Association since 1914 has been to create and maintain a specialized scientific library in the field of Economic History. There is also, for instance, a unique collection of books on the history of commerce published between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, including a series of text-books edited by Bartjens, and Phoosen's Amsterdamsche wisselstijl (conversion tables for various coins, tables for non-metric weights and measures), as well as all editions of Jacques Savary's Le Parfait Négociant.

There are two collections concerning special subjects: the Schuddebeurs Collection (on loan to the Library), comprising an abundance of material pertaining to insurance, and the Van Deventer Collection, which was left to the Library by J.H.J. van Deventer of Amsterdam and consists of works on tailoring and the history of clothing.

In addition to publications on economics and economic history (books and journals) there is material on related fields such has technology and law. Lastly, the Library has a very large collection of annual reports and serial publications.

Religions View Religions

Explorations in Pursuit of Understanding

Series:

Edited by Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen and Hendrik M. Vroom

Because religion is so central to the lives and experience of the vast majority of people throughout the world, it figures very prominently in a variety of ways in interhuman relations. Unfortunately, ‘religion’ often appears to be one of the potent sources of mistrust, discord and strife between and among individuals, groups and cultures. What frequently lies at the root of such suspicion and dissension is general ignorance concerning the religious other, a lack of knowledge about his or her beliefs, aspirations and views of the good and morally honorable life. And even if people have some factual knowledge about other religions, they regularly display little understanding of them and their adherents. Learning both to know and understand people of other faiths and their religions is absolutely requisite to the realization of paradigms of coherent and intelligent ‘convivance,’ that is, living together in sensible, peaceable and cooperative harmony.
An effective agency for fostering such knowledge and understanding is the discipline of theology of religions, which examines how religions have and ought to view other religions. And it is particularly the practice of comparative theology of religions which bears the most promise in this regard. The present symposium consists of precisely this kind of comparative exercise and may be viewed as an important contribution to the development of a new project which endeavors to enlarge the horizon and broaden the focus and reflection of theology of religions as that has been gradually developed during the last few decades, a new enterprise, in other words, which seeks to universalize and mutualize theology-of-religions discourse.
One of the important things this volume shows is that the views religions have of other religions differ from one another in very substantial ways, which is explained by the fact that they derive from diverging paradigms of faith, belief and ritual and specific cultural and social contexts. This textbook demonstrates how strongly different Hindu, Buddhist, Shinto and Confucian views are from those of Islam, Judaism and Christianity, which latter in turn also exhibit considerable differences among themselves. These differences are greater than people immersed in their own cultures often realize or expect. It is becoming ever more clear that ignorance of or disinclination to acknowledge or refusal to accept these real differences constitute major root causes of serious conflicts in the world.
The essays in this book, written by representatives of the major world religions, offer descriptive and/or prescriptive appraisals of other religions in general or one other religion in particular from the perspective of the religion of the author concerned. It is hoped that this unique exercise in intercultural theology of religions will generate insights and new forms of understanding which can be used by religious leaders and other educators to help correct the disposition toward religious haughtiness, insularity and communalism and the dangerous leanings toward interreligious suspicion, antipathy and animosity which are all too often evident in our contemporary societies.

Readings of the Particular

The Postcolonial in the Postnational

Series:

Edited by Anne Holden Rønning and Lene M. Johannessen

The present collection aims at throwing light on transculturality and the identities and masks that people put on, in writing as much as in life, in an age of global levelling and the struggle for a particular place in a postcolonial world. Topics covered include: North African identity in France; cultural citizenship and the Asian diaspora; novels of beur self-identity by Maghrebi immigrants in France; Scottish fiction, Britain and Empire; memory, amnesia, and the re-invention of the past in South Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere; borders, necrophilia and history in Southern African fiction; encodings of female control; spectating in black documentary cinema; theatre, performance, and the Western presence in Africa; masks, history, transtextuality, and other aspects of Irish poetry and drama; the masking and unmasking of identity in the African-American novel; violence and Titus Andronicus in black Nova Scotian poetry; notions of the national and of indigeneity in contemporary Canadian drama; Native Canadians, space, and the city. Authors and artists treated include: William Boyd; André Brink; George Elliott Clarke; David Dabydeen; Ralph Ellison; Bessie Head; Seamus Heaney; Tomson Highway; Isaac Julien; Daniel David Moses; Paul Muldoon; Albert Murray; Jean Rhys; Sir Walter Scott; Robert Louis Stevenson; Richard Wright; and W.B. Yeats.