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Various Authors & Editors

The Indonesian Hajj
Part 1: The Archive of the Dutch Consulate (later Legation) at Jiddah (Jeddah), Saudi Arabia, 1872-1950

Historical background
By the early 1870s thousands of Muslim pilgrims were traveling each year from the Netherlands East Indies to Mecca to perform the hajj , one of the principal duties of every follower of Islam. The voyage went by sea from the archipelago to the port of Jiddah on the Red Sea coast in the Hejaz region of Arabia, at the time a province of the Ottoman Empire. The desirability of exercising control over this vast movement of colonial subjects coupled with the possibility of increased trade through the Red Sea brought about by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 prompted the Dutch ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Colonies to open a consulate there. The request made to the Ottoman authorities in Constantinople was granted and in June of 1872 the first consul presented his credentials to the local Turkish authorities at Jiddah and the Dutch flag was hoisted to a ceremonial 21-gun salute.
Trading opportunities soon proved disappointing and the primary task of the con¬sulate for the next eight decades became protecting, caring for, administering and, signifi¬cantly, monitoring the political activities of, the many Indonesian pilgrims visiting the holy places. It was no accident that the first diplomat to hold this post was well acquainted with the situation in the East Indies and with the Indonesian language.

Dutch policy
The famous Dutch Arabist and scholar of Islam, Snouck Hurgronje, who himself visited Arabia in 1884-1885 and entered Mecca as a Muslim convert, advised the Netherlands Indies government to appoint Indonesian personnel, who as Muslims would have access to Mecca itself, barred to non-Muslims. While tolerant of Islam as a religion, his constant counsel as a colonial adviser over many years was to repress political agitation. Thus in 1885 Consul de Vicq hired the Javanese Raden Abu Bacr as interpreter and scribe. He was able to accompany the pilgrims to Mecca and furnish the Dutch with all sorts of information about people and the Indonesian Muslim colony resident there.

Medical care
In addition to politics, the medical care of the pilgrims was a major concern of the Dutch authorities and here too it was the practice to appoint Indonesian personnel. An Indonesian medical practice was established at Jiddah and transferred permanently to Mecca in 1927. The importance of this service can be seen by the fact that more than 20,000 patients were being treated there by 1938.

Turbulent period
Initially the consulate's purview only extended to the port of Jiddah itself, but was expanded in 1894 to include the Hejaz and Yemen. Later a vice-consulate was also established in Mecca. The breakup of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I led to the creation of mandate territories in the region, such as Iraq, and the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In 1930 the Jiddah consulate was elevated to the rank of legation and in 1932 its jurisdiction was enlarged once again. With Indonesian independence at the end of 1949, care for the pilgrims became the responsibility of the new government and Dutch representation at Jiddah ended.

The archive: The infrastructure of the hajj
The archive of the consulate and later legation contains correspondence and other documents, such as reports, registers and statistical surveys from 1872 until 1950 in Dutch, but also in Arabic, Malay, French and English.
They can be used to study the entire infrastructure of the hajj in all its facets, including:
• transportation of the pilgrims by sea and later by air
• health and medical needs of the pilgrims
• public health and sanitation during the hajj
• treatment and prevention of disease and epidemics, quarantines
• medical personnel
• births and deaths during the pilgrimage, inheritances
• housing and food supplies
• religious currents and religious education
• legal and financial problems of the pilgrims
• political activities
• provenance and background of the Indonesian pilgrims
• pilgrims from other countries, especially from British India, Malaya and Singapore
• international cooperation in matters relating to the hajj, especially public health
• Dutch and Indonesian consular personnel
• relations with the authorities in Jiddah and Mecca
• the Java colony at Mecca

Political and economic history of the region
More generally, the archive also contains reports and other documents that can be used for the study of the political situation in the Middle East in this tumultuous period and its economic exploitation, including documents on slavery in the region, petroleum extraction, infrastructural development, such as road building and separate files kept for Aden, Eritrea, Hadhramaut, Iraq and Yemen.

An inventory in Dutch with an introduction in English provides access to the archive, which is being micropublished in its entirety with the exception of a number of files under embargo for reasons of privacy.


Michael Charney

This study of warfare in Southeast Asia between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries examines the chief aspects of warfare in the region. It begins with an examination of the cultural features that made warfare in the region unique, followed by a discussion of the main weapons used, and the two major sites of fighting, sieges and naval contests. Three chapters examine the role played by animals such as elephants and horses. The final two chapters examine the shift from mercenary armies and masses of levies to smaller standing armies. The study closes with an examination of the tumultuous nineteenth century, in which European naval power won the coast and rivers, while Southeast Asians held the advantage further inland.

The Malay Peninsula

Crossroads of the Maritime Silk Road (100 BC - 1300 AD)


Michel Jacq-Hergoualc’h

This book attempts to evaluate the role of the Malay Peninsula as a crossroads in the great wave of commercial relationships along the maritime Silk Road from the first centuries of the Christian era to the 14th century. Through these exchanges, representatives of all the civilizations of Asia entered into contact along its shores. They left in this place a part of themselves, as can be seen in the great stylistic diversity of the religious and commercial artefacts which have been found in the area.
These artefacts have been analysed and categorized afresh in the light of more precise information provided in Chinese texts concerning the nature of the political entities developing at the time: often dynamic city states or more modest chiefdoms.


The ritual bedhaya dances of the Central Javanese courts form a highly valued expression of Javanese culture. These stately dance forms, comprising complex choreographies executed to the accompaniment of archaic songs and gamelan music, are part of the cultural tradition of the Mataram dynasty. They have been preserved in the two main court centres of Central Java: Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
The contents of the book range from a relatively general introduction to a detailed analysis of structural, formal features of the dances. Included are theories on the origin, social context and esoteric meaning, as well as 19th and 20th century scores of performances.
The two main components of the art form, choral singing and group dancing, have each been discussed in a separate chapter. A number of song texts and choreographies, transcribed from palace manuscripts, are published for the first time. These songs represent an archaic singing style, which holds important information on the development of Javanese vocal and instrumental music.
An analysis of bedhaya choreographies which are seldom performed nowadays may serve to prevent the impending disappearance of this beautiful and stylized art form. The choreographic discussion has been visualized on a 60 minute video-tape, produced from research material which was filmed between 1983-1985. This video-tape may be ordered from the author.

Edited by Merle Calvin Ricklefs and Bruce Lockhart

Brill’s Southeast Asian Library (SEAL) presents scholarly readers with outstanding scholarship covering all regions of Southeast Asia, especially mainland Southeast Asia, on topics from the past to the present day. Featuring both monographs and edited volumes, it offers rigorously peer-reviewed and enduring contributions from the full spectrum of humanities and social science disciplines.


J. M. Pluvier

This book deals with the historical development of South-East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) from the earliest times to the present. In the first section a chronological survey in succinct form of the history of the area is presented so as to provide the reader with the background information necessary to make adequate use of the second section. That part of the book can be used on its own, portraying the history of South-East Asia in 64 pages of maps which cover such items as the formation of states and empires, the migration of peoples, trade routes, cultural and economic aspects, the rise and decline of colonialism and the political development of the post-colonial era. All maps are coloured. The text part places each map in its historical context, providing also lists of kings, presidents etc. It is concluded by an extensive bibliography and by two indexes, one of the geographical names on the maps and in the text and one of the names of the numerous persons mentioned in the text.

Early Javanese Inscriptions

A New Dating Method


Lars Gislén and Chris Eade

In spite of its being one of the cornerstones of historical research, even the historical expert is - understandably - terrified by the complications involved in the calculation of dates. Early Javanese Inscriptions puts the study of Indonesian epigraphical dating on a completely new footing, both in terms of speed and reliability of the analytical procedures.
No luni-solar calendrical system can be properly accounted for unless the system of intercalation is properly understood. This study examines the early Javanese inscriptions, taking account for the first time of the detailed astronomical information so routinely presented in the texts. A computer analysis, using a program specially developed for the purpose, facilitates confirmation or correction of much of the material. It also makes possible for the first time a description of the intercalation (insertion of extra lunar months) employed in that version of the luni-solar calendar.
Authors have made use of the advanced Calendrical Computer Program, presenting all the astronomical data and the Indian and indigenous Indonesian dating system data.
Early Javanese Inscriptions may serve as a model for any historian working on complex dating problems. A reliable and, after some practice, easily accessible guide to the calculation of (Javanese) dates.


Robert L. Brown

This volume deals with a unique group of stone sculptures, representations of the Buddha's Wheel of the Law, found in present-day Thailand that date from about the seventh-eighth centuries CE.
The book places these sculptures in their historical, religious, and art historical contexts to determine what they meant to the culture (called Dvāravatī) that produced them. Thus, other art historical material associated with the Wheels, including stone deer, Buddha images, and stupas, are discussed.
Of greatest importance is how these sculptures relate to both the art in Cambodia and that in India, and to determine what these relationships can tell us about the process (called Indianization) by which Indian culture, religion, and art were adapted in Southeast Asia.

Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 3: Papers of Prof. C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773-1854) on the East Indies (c. 1755-1828)

National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

on microfiche

In 2004 Moran Micropublications started a new series of archival publications on microfiche on the theme of science in a colonial context. The first part consisted of the archive of the “Indies Committee for Scientific Research” (order number MMP112) and the second that of “The Expeditions of H.A. Lorentz to New Guinea, 1903-1914” (order number MMP130). Here we present part 3 of this series with order number MMP131.

The collection
Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt was born in the Rhineland province of Prussia in 1773, but moved to the Netherlands at a young age. He studied science and philosophy there, later becoming a professor of natural history. From 1817 to 1822 he served the Dutch in the East Indies, recently recovered from British control after the Napoleonic wars ended in 1815, as director of affairs for agriculture, arts and sciences. He is best known as the founder of the famous botanical gardens at Buitenzorg (now Bogor) on Java (1817). He traveled extensively in the archipelago in these years. His papers micropublished here concern among others gathering samples of flora and fauna for the natural history collections in the Netherlands and scientific investigations into various subjects, such as earthquakes and volcanoes, mining and agriculture. Also included are various papers and memoranda (memories) of officials of the VOC (Dutch East India Company) from the second-half of the eighteenth century, as well as a short travel account by the Belgian artist A.A.J. Payen and a few documents from Reinwardt’s period as professor in Leiden after his return from the Indies.

More materials sought
As appears from the introduction to Reinwardt and the present collection by A. M. Tempelaars reproduced below on pages 9-12 in Dutch and English, other archival materials from Reinwardt seem to have found their way into the holdings of the University Library in Leiden. From other sources as well it appears that there are still other repositories with Reinwardt holdings. Moran Micropublications will be making efforts to identify and also micropublish these documents if possible.

More information
More information on Reinwardt’s career and scientific achievements can be found on the website of the Netherlands National Herbarium in Leiden:

and in the publications cited below in the Guide (p. 9).

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.