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Edited by Gunther Kaltenböck, Wiltrud Mihatsch and Stefan Schneider

Hedging is an essential part of everyday communication. It is a discourse strategy which is used to reduce commitment to the force or truth of an utterance to achieve an appropriate pragmatic effect. In recent years hedges have therefore attracted increased attention in Pragmatics and Applied Linguistics, with studies approaching the concept of hedging from various perspectives, such as speech act - and politeness theory, genre-specific investigations, interactional pragmatics, and studies of vague language. The present volume provides an up-to-date overview of current research on the topic by bringing together studies from a variety of fields. The contributions span a range of different languages, investigate the use of hedges in different communicative settings and text types, and consider all levels of linguistic analysis from prosody to morphology, syntax and semantics. What unites the different studies in this volume is a corpus-based approach, in which various theoretical concepts and categories are applied to, and tested against, actual language data. This allows for patterns of use to be uncovered which have previously gone unnoticed and provides valuable insights for the adjustment and fine-tuning of existing categories. The usage-based approach of the investigations therefore offers new theoretical and descriptive perspectives on the context-dependent nature and multifunctionality of hedges.

The Body in Language

Comparative Studies of Linguistic Embodiment

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Edited by Matthias Brenzinger and Iwona Kraska-Szlenk

The Body in Language: Comparative studies of Linguistic Embodiment provides new insights into the theory of linguistic embodiment in its universal and cultural aspects. The contributions of the volume offer theoretical reflections on grammaticalization, lexical semantics, philosophy, multimodal communication and - by discussing metaphorization and metonymy in figurative language - on cognitive linguistics in general.
Case studies contribute first-hand data on embodiment from more than 15 languages and present findings on the body in language in diverse cultures from various continents. Embodiment fundamentally underlies human conceptualization and the present discussions reveal a wide range of target domains in conceptual transfers with the body as the source domain.

Edited by Rosalind Horowitz and S. Jay Samuels

Written by respected researchers in their field, this book is about the skills beyond basic word recognition that are necessary for the processing and comprehension of spoken and written language. The major topics presented are as follows: language and text analysis; cognitive processing and comprehension; development of literacy; literacy and schooling; and, factors influencing listening and reading.

Handbook of Phonological Development

From the Perspective of Constraint-Based Nonlinear Phonology

Joseph Stemberger and Barbara Bernhardt

This book combines a vast collection of data on phonological acquisition with close attention to Optimality Theory. It blends the studies of linguistics, psycholinguistics, and speech-language pathology in reference to phonological development. It also contains a step-by-step evaluation of competing theories while presenting a complete view of non-linear phonology, including adult grammar, psychological processing, first and second language acquisition, and inter-generational language changes. The authors focus on speech production rather than perception, emphasizing data from the period of real words. The many tables and phonological trees help to make this timely and useful study accessible to students and professionals alike. Among its key features it: addresses the full range of phonological patterns observed in children's speech; surveys patterns of development in children's speech; and provides the only existing single framework for children's phonological development.

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Edited by Dicky Gilbers, John Nerbonne and Jos Schaeken

The present volume includes papers that were presented at the conference Languages in Contact at the University of Groningen (25-26 November 1999). The conference was held to celebrate the University of St. Petersburg’s award of an honorary doctorate to Tjeerd de Graaf of Groningen. In general, the issues discussed in the articles involve pidgins and creoles, minorities and their languages, Diaspora situations, Sprachbund phenomena, extralinguistic correlates of variety in contact situations, problems of endangered languages and the typology of these languages. Special attention is paid to contact phenomena between languages of the Russian Empire / USSR / Russian Federation, their survival and the influence of Russian.

Grammatical Gender in Interaction

Cultural and Cognitive Aspects

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Angeliki Alvanoudi

In Grammatical Gender in Interaction: Cultural and Cognitive Aspects Angeliki Alvanoudi explores the relation between grammatical gender in person reference, culture and cognition in Modern Greek conversation. The author investigates the cultural and cognitive aspects of grammatical gender, by drawing on feminist sociolinguistic and non-linguistic approaches, cognitive linguistics, research on linguistic relativity, studies on person reference in interaction and conversation analysis. The study presented in this book shows that the use of grammatical gender contributes to the routine achievement of sociocultural gender in interaction and that grammatical gender guides speakers’ thinking of referents as female or male at the time of speaking.

Questioning Language Contact

Limits of Contact, Contact at its Limits

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Edited by Robert Nicolaï

This volume critically exposes problems in present language contact analysis and uses empirical findings to provide answers to the following questions. What can we learn from the study of language contact for our knowledge of languages, their dynamics and their functions (systemic elaborations, language practices, semiotic developments)? How should linguistic theory incorporate the empirical findings of language contact studies, and how could these alter underlying postulates of existing models (choice of analysis and epistemic framework)? Which role has language contact been playing in the history of linguistic research and academic life? And how has this idea influenced individual researchers and their approaches?

Ilias Papathanasiou and Ria De Bleser

It is now widely expected that scientific evidence and theory should be used to describe aphasia and aphasia therapy. This book provides review chapters on controversial research and clinical issues in aphasia and aphasia therapy. Contributions from distinguished scholars from all over the world (Europe, America, Australia) cover the range of disciplines involved in aphasia, including neurology of aphasia, cognitive and linguistic approaches to aphasic therapy, psychosocial approaches, aphasia research methodology, and efficacy of aphasia therapy. This book brings together contributions of all these disciplines and makes a link between theory and therapy from a scientific perspective. Each chapter offers a current review with extensive references, thus providing a useful resource for clinicians, students and researchers involved in aphasia and aphasic therapy including doctors, psychologists,linguists and speech and language therapists. The papers in this book were presented at the first European Research Conference on Aphasia.

Aorists and Perfects

Synchronic and diachronic perspectives

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Edited by Marc Fryd and Pierre-Don Giancarli

This volume gathers nine contributions dealing with Aorists and Perfects. Drinka challenges the notion of Aoristic Drift in Romance languages. Walker considers two emergent uses of the Perfect in British English. Jara seeks to determine the constraints on tense choice within narrative discourse in Peruvian Spanish. Henderson argues for a theory based on Langacker’s ‘sequential scanning’ in Chilean and Uruguayan Spanish. Delmas looks at ’Ua in Tahitian, a polysemic particle with a range of aspectual and modal meanings. Bourdin addresses the expression of anteriority with just in English. Yerastov examines the distribution of the transitive be Perfect in Canadian English. Fryd offers a panchronic study of have-less perfect constructions in English. Eide investigates counterfactual present perfects in Mainland Scandinavian dialects.