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Satarupa Dasgupta

out violence and extortion against them. Violence against sex workers, as a fallout of criminalization and rescue and rehabilitation propositions, is commonplace and recurrent in India, while the prosecution of perpetrators is rare. 5 In this chapter I present a historical analysis of the dominant

Adil Mustafa Ahmad

The Sudanese need to establish sound bases for environmental justice and global citizenship. The combination of military dictatorship and militant Islamist thought and the resultant isolation of the state have led to reactive political decision-making on vital matters thus harming the country’s ecosystems and its people. This chapter deals with the issue by focusing on one vital natural resource – fresh water – and highlighting how it has been made to deliver, or threaten, destruction and hamper development. This happens in different ways all arising from taking wrong decisions or failing to take the right ones. Most of the Nile basin lies in the Sudan, rains are plentiful and large underground reservoirs exist. Yet, ironically, water has enhanced the country’s vulnerability through the state’s indifference, mismanagement, religious fanaticism and political expediency. The chapter considers: 1)constructing the High Dam in Egypt flooding Nubian settlements, fertile lands and minerals and displacing communities; 2) building another dam in Nubia and planning two more flooding practically the entire Sudanese Nubia; 3) drying up the Jonglei wetlands destroying distinctive ecosystems and aiding desert advance; 4) constructing a dam in Ethiopia 12.5 km from the Sudanese border holding a reservoir of about 74 billion cubic metres in an earthquake area being a potential time bomb for the Sudan; 5) drawing water by Libya from the Nubian Aquifer which lies in four countries without presenting any studies or seeking the consent of the other parties being a threat to regional development in the west; 6) failing to combat desertification and in some cases escalating it by igniting or fuelling tribal wars and causing massive displacement pushing tribes southwards to get in conflict with other tribes. The chapter calls for the involvement and intervention of regional and international bodies and for active ‘global citizenship.’

Ksenia Gerasimova

The conceptual framework of sustainable development is built on three pillars – economic, environmental and social. In early 2014, a small group led by Patrick Moore, a former co-founder of Greenpeace, marched in front of Greenpeace buildings in Germany and the UK to protest against Greenpeace’s position on Golden Rice. It is possibly the first protest against Greenpeace. However, a case when a radical environmentalist changes his mindset and turns against his former colleagues is not unique. Moore joins other ‘environmental heretics’, such as Mark Lynas, Stewart Brand and James Lovelock, arguing for GM (genetically modified) crops. These arguments indicate new challenges presented to the ideological hegemony of environmentalists in the discussion about GM crops. The GM debates have been portrayed as two-dimensional: environmental risks versus economic profits, green lobby (Greenpeace) opposing industry. The Golden Rice, unlike other GM products, was designed as a humanitarian project to address malnutrition of poor populations, particularly children, in developing countries, which has been one of the Millennium Development Goals. This rice contains beta-carotene, which should fight the Vitamin A deficiency, a preventable cause of many illnesses. Moore referred to the humanitarian rights’ framework, claiming that Greenpeace ‘committed the crime against humanity’. Thus, the Golden rice case has shifted the debates on GM crops from the confrontation of economic pillar and environmental pillar to the inclusion of the third dimension - social development. This chapter studies the ‘green heretics’ arguments to understand what makes them change their views on GM crops and compare it with traditional agenda of Greenpeace, and demonstrates how the question of food security has been placed in environmental rights’ and humanitarian rights’ agendas. This all then leads to a discussion of possible implementations of sustainable development.

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Maja Mechant

detailed statistics, but by combining several sources in a critical fashion we may arrive at an approximation of broad evolutions in prostitute populations, at least for Europe from the early modern period to the present day, as well as contemporary developments elsewhere. Nevertheless, lack of data means

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Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk

that women sex workers have suffered in the past and present, most of the articles in this volume provide evidence for a more nuanced history. Of course, female sex workers have often been in an unfavourable position, but they still generally had room to manoeuvre and at times could exert outright

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Thaddeus Gregory Blanchette

going. “After all”, she said, half declaring, half entreating, “as long as I keep working, they have to pay me some day. Right?” Many of you reading this story in its present context—a volume on the global history of prostitution—are probably recognizing this young woman’s plight. After all, the

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Julia Laite

in the present-day metropolis. Space and Place London saw immense changes in its physical and cultural geography in the 400-year period under examination. Much of its mediaeval core was destroyed by fire in 1666, and there was also a massive expansion of its suburbs over the next three centuries. It

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Maja Mechant

century, both World Wars, and the present day. Under discussion are the push and pull factors involved in the trade, the legal norms concerning prostitution, the social profiles of sex workers, their dependency on their employers, and their working conditions. Not all of these topics are analysed in depth

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Liat Kozma

domain of desire was shaped by these colonial interactions. 1 Historical research on prostitution and colonialism is relatively recent. The argument historians present is that colonial domination and colonial power relations affected prostitution on multiple levels. First, the migration of women for

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Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, Magaly Rodríguez García and Lex Heerma van Voss

service-oriented and recreational aspects of towns attracted both migrant women looking for work and clients looking for pleasure rather than mere industrial activities (and this continues up to the present day). Admittedly, from early on towns enjoyed a relatively high amount of monetary circulation and