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Edited by Matti Häyry and Tuija Takala

This book explores the nature of values, and the status of value studies, at the turn of the millennium. The contributors, nineteen philosophers from fourteen countries, introduce and defend an enriching variety of views regarding the present state and future prospects of value inquiry.

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Edited by Rem B. Edwards

Formal Axiology and Its Critics consists of two parts, both of which present criticisms of the formal theory of values developed by Robert S. Hartman, replies to these criticisms, plus a short introduction to formal axiology.
Part I consists of articles published or made public during the lifetime of Hartman to which he personally replied. It contains previously published replies to Hector Neri Castañeda, William Eckhardt, and Robert S. Brumbaugh, and previously unpublished replies to Charles Hartshorne, Rem B. Edwards, Robert E. Carter, G.R. Grice, Nicholas Rescher, Robert W. Mueller, Gordon Welty, Pete Gunter, and George K. Plochmann in an unfinished but now completed article on which Hartman was working at the time of his death in 1973.
Part II consists of articles presented at recent annual meetings of the R.S. Hartman Institute for Formal and Applied Axiology that continue to criticize and further develop Hartman's formal axiology. An article by Rem B. Edwards raises serious unanswered questions about formal axiology and ethics. Another by Frank G. Forrest shows how the formal value calculus based on set theory might answer these questions, and an article by Mark A. Moore points out weaknesses in the Hartman/Forrest value calculus and develops an alternative calculus based upon the mathematics of quantum mechanics.
While recognizing that unsolved problems remain, the book intends to make the theoretical foundations and future promise of formal axiology much more secure.

Ethics and the Neurosciences

Ethical and social consequences of neuroscientific progress

Saskia K Nagel

Advances in the neurosciences have ethical and social implications which need careful consideration from an interdisciplinary perspective: The present book allows readers with different backgrounds gaining a better understanding of recent progress in the neurosciences and their implications. It first introduces to thinking in applied ethics and offers an approach that does justice to challenges from the neurosciences. State-of-the-art scientific work is discussed with respect to its implications for the individual and society. Methods of brain monitoring are explained looking at potentials and limitations as well as at implications of applications. Second, the wide field of brain manipulation is analysed with a focus on psychopharmacological enhancement. The discussion includes investigation of our capacity to handle the options opened to us, safety issues, the role of social pressures, equality of opportunity and distributive justice, as well as questions of the concept of normality, authenticity and naturalness. The book highlights crucial challenges for the individual, policy, law, and society emerging from neuroscienti?c and neurotechnological advances.The approach avoids problematic neuro-reductionism and is aware of promises and perils of neuroscientific progress. It thus balances overly sceptical with overenthusiastic positions by offering a profound analysis of scientific and ethical issues.

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Edited by Władysław Krajewski

The volume is a collection of essays about prominent Polish 20th century philosophers of science and scientists who were concerned with problems in the philosophy of science. The contribution made by Polish logicians, especially those from the Lvov-Warsaw School, like Łukasiewicz, Kotarbiński, Czeżowski or Ajdukiewicz, is already well known. One of the aims of the volume is to offer a broader perspective. The papers collected here are devoted to the work of such philosophers as Zawirski, Metallmann, Dąmbska, Mehlberg, Szaniawski and Giedymin as well as to the work of such scientists as Smoluchowski, Fleck, Infeld and Chyliński. The introduction to the volume, written by the editor and Jacek Jadacki, presents an overview of the history of the Polish philosophy of science from the foundation of the Cracow Academy (in 1364) to the present.

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Edited by Tamás Demeter

Essays on Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy is presented for the 60th birthday of professor Christoph Nyíri. The essays presented here for the first time are focused on Austrian intellectual history, and on Wittgenstein’s philosophy – the two main areas of Professor Nyíri’s interests. Typically, the contributors are outstanding scholars of the field, including among others David Bloor, Lee Congdon, Newton Garver, Wilhelm Lütterfields, Joachim Schulte, Barry Smith. The volume is of primary interest for Wittgenstein scholars and those studying the 19th and 20th century Austrian intellectual history.
As the volume is presented for Professor Nyíri, the papers collected here reflect his interests in Wittgenstein and Austrian philosophy. Beginning with an introductory chapter on Nyiri’s achievements in this field of scholarship, the volume is in four parts. The first part contains essays on Austrian philosophy broadly understood, more precisely on its socio-historical context (Barry Smith and Wolfgang Grassl), on the relation between Marxism and Arnold Hauser’s philosophy and sociology of art (Lee Congdon), and Neurath’s connection to naturalistic epistemologies (Thomas Uebel).
The second part presents Wittgenstein's philosophy in context. Jaakko Hintikka’s paper argues that Wittgenstein’s probable dyslexia can be seen as an external influence on and a source of his philosophy. David Bloor discusses Wittgenstein’s philosophy in the context of Edmund Burke’s conservatism, which can be read as a background of Nyiri’s influential interpretation of Wittgenstein as a conservative philosopher. Newton Garver also touches on the problem of conservatism while discussing passages of On Certainty in the context of Kant, Moore, and T.S. Eliot. Klaus Puhl’s essay connects Wittgenstein’s remarks on rule-following to Freud’s concept of retroactivity, and argues that rules emerging from empirical regularities can be seen as retroactive constructions.
The papers in the third part of the volume offer close readings of Wittgenstein’s works. Rudolf Lüthe offers two readings of Wittgenstein’s criticism of philosophy in the Tractatus can be read in two ways with different consequences, among them is the appearance of philosophy inspired by art rather than the sciences. Joachim Schulte offers an interpretation of Wittgenstein’s use of ’natural history’ that can accommodate all of his remarks containing this concept. Herbert Hrachovec discusses the relation of pictorial and linguistic representations in Wittgenstein’s Nachlass, arguing that there is no pronounced opposition between the two.
The forth part of the book, containing three papers in German, continues the close inspection of Wittgenstein’s later works. Wilhelm Lütterfelds reconstructs Wittgenstein’s philosophy of time as pointing out memory being the very source of time. Katalin Neumer inspects Wittgenstein’s frequent references to photographs in the context of aspect-seeing and compares them with other remarks on theatre, painting, and music. She concludes that there are no philosophically important structural differences between them. Peter Keicher’s paper offers a comprehensive view on Wittgenstein’s prefaces in the context of his various book-projects.
The volume ends with a select bibliography of Professor Nyiri’s works.

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Edited by Christian Krijnen

There has been an intensive debate in recent years, particularly in political philosophy, on how the concept of recognition ( Anerkennung) can bring insight into understanding social and political relationships and answering ethical questions. Proponents of this philosophy seek to apply German Idealism, especially Hegel, to the arguments of recognition in order to solve contemporary problems. However, does the present debate incorporate sufficiently the requirements of the idealist philosophy which it pretends to inherit and update? As a new paradigm for philosophy claiming to actualize German idealist philosophy, it provokes questions about the foundation of the principle of recognition itself as well as about which philosophical method provides the best means for addressing recognition. In Recognition -- German Idealism as an Ongoing Challenge, renowned authors address this fascinating and far-reaching questions in discussion with Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.

Contributors include: Robert Brandom, Paul Cobben, Simon Critchley, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer, Kenneth Westphal, Klaus Vieweg, Erzsébet Rósza, Christian Krijnen, Heikki Ikäheimo, Donald Loose, Kurt Walter Zeidler, Jean-Christophe Merle, Sasa Josifovic, Arthur Kok, Emiliano Acosta

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Balász M. Mezei and Barry Smith

Brentano's Four Phases of Philosophy, first published in 1895 and here translated into English for the first time, presents a dramatic account of the history of philosophy in terms of a succession of cycles of renewal and decline. Phases of renewal are associated with the rediscovery of science, of empiricism, of rigour and clarity. Phases of decline are associated with competing schools and sects, with mysticism and obfuscation, and with relativisms and idealisms of various sorts. Each final phase of decline, with its ultimate collapse into nonsense, gives rise to the call for a new phase of renewal, and Aristotle, in Brentano's eyes, represents the ideal type of this renewal phase of philosophy. Brentano exploits his cyclical theory to provide a guiding path through the history of Western philosophy from the beginnings in the Presocratics to what was from his perspective the final phase of decline in the work of Kant and the German idealists. In an extensive introduction, Balász Mezei and Barry Smith present a detailed account of Brentano's method in the history of philosophy. They demonstrate its roots in the work of August Comte, and compare it to other methodologies in the historiography of philosophy, including that of Kant. Most interestingly, however, they seek to bring up to date Brentano's account of the cycles of renewal and decline in the history of philosophy. They show how Brentano's method can be applied to the histories of twentieth-century analytic and Continental philosophy, from their auspicious beginnings in the work of Frege and Husserl (and Brentano) himself to their ultimate decline in the work of Rorty, Levinas and Derrida.

Der unversöhnte Marx

Die Welt in Aufruhr

Michael Quante

„Die Philosophen haben die Welt nur verschieden interpretiert,es kömmt drauf an,sie zu verändern.“ Karl Marx Die Welt ist in Aufruhr. Religionskonflikte, Kämpfe um Ressourcen, Kriege und Hungersnöte vertreiben die Menschen aus ihren Heimatländern. Die Flüchtlingsströme haben Europa erreicht und die bisher in die Dritte Welt ausgelagerten Probleme ins Herz der alten Welt getragen. Der internationale Finanzsektor ist nach wie vor Schauplatz eines politisch unkontrollierten Neoliberalismus. Der Kapitalismus zeigt derzeit an vielen Orten der Welt ungeschminkt sein hässliches Gesicht. Die Zeit für durchgreifende Veränderungen ist gekommen. Karl Marx stand der kapitalistischen Gesellschaft seiner Zeit unversöhnlich gegenüber. Die aktuellen kritischen Potentiale seines Denkens gilt es heute zu erschließen: Die Ideologie der Sachzwänge, von Marx in ihrer internen Logik entschlüsselt, beherrscht das Denken und ist zum Mantra der Wohlhabenden geworden. Fremdenfeindliche und revanchistische Denkfiguren haben sich an die Stelle von kritischem Bewusstsein, Bildung und Solidarität gesetzt. Angesichts dieser Herausforderungen erscheint das Denken von Karl Marx aktueller denn je. Es ist an der Zeit, sich wieder mit der Marxschen Kritik des Kapitalismus, und damit mit seiner Kritik an unserer Gegenwart, auseinanderzusetzen.

Edited by Daniel Hornuff, Christian A. Bauer and Sebastian Baden

Klagen über den Verfall der Kultur gehören zu den beliebtesten Übungen von Intellektuellen. In welchen Formen sich diese Klagen äußern, untersuchen Beiträge namhafter Wissenschaftler.
Viele empfinden die Gegenwart als zu hektisch, zu laut, zu oberflächlich, zu chaotisch. Doch diese Diagnosen unter dem Vorzeichen von Kulturkritik sind so alt wie die Moderne selbst. Was sich allerdings wandelt, sind die Medien von Klagen über Entfremdung und die Inszenierungen des Niedergangs. Der Band nimmt diese Klagetradition zum Anlass, um die Modalitäten von Kulturkritik näher zu beleuchten: In welchen Rede- und Schreibweisen, Erscheinungsbildern, Zeichen- und Ausdruckswelten nehmen kulturkritische Leidensemphasen Gestalt an? Und wie konsumieren zeitgenössische Rezipienten die alltäglichen Angebote der Kulturkritik?

Pragmatic Idealism

Critical Essays on Nicholas Rescher’s System of Pragmatic Idealism

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Edited by Axel Wüstehube and Michael Quante

The System of Pragmatic Idealism is of special importance for Nicholas Rescher's philosophical work, because here he has presented the systematic approach at once. Dedicated to his 70th birthday a group of European and U.S-american philosophers discuss the main topics of Rescher's philosophical system. The contributions which are presented here for the first time and Nicholas Rescher's responses cover the most important topics of philosophy and give a deep and detailed insight into the strenght of Rescher's pragmatic idealism. This volume is of interest for philosophers studying Rescher's philosophy and for all those who are interested in systematic philosophy and the vividnes of pragmatism and idealism in present philosophy.