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Indian Diaspora

Socio-Cultural and Religious Worlds

Series:

Edited by Pratap Kumar

The chapters presented in this volume represent a wide variety of Indian diasporic experiences. From indenture labour to the present day immigrations, Indian diasporic narrative is one that offers opportunities to evaluate afresh notions of ethnicity, race, caste, gender and religious diversity. From victim discourse to narratives of optimism and complexities of identity issues, the Indian diaspora has exhibited characteristics that enable us as scholars to construct theoretical views on the diaspora and migration. The cases included in this volume will illumine such theoretical ideas. The readers will certainly be able to appreciate the diversity and the depth of these narratives and gain insight into the social and cultural and religious world of the diaspora.

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

and offers monthly talks on Confucianism for the public. 14 At present, two major official organizations have taken responsibility for the development of Confucianism and the protection of Confucius temples in mainland China. In 1984, the China Confucius Foundation ( Zhongguo kongzi jijinhui 中国孔子基金会

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Disciple Sect Is Deceptive”; Kaifengliaoning, “Still Haunting—Be Alert to the Disciple Sect”; Liaoning Pindao, “A Way to Save the Followers of the Disciple Sect.” 4 Liu and Leung, “Organizational Revivalism.” 5 Erhimbayar, “Mongolian Buddhist Monasteries in Present-day Northeastern China.” 6 J. Zhang, “The

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

featured lectures by Daoist masters and exhibitions of Daoist culture. Medical experts were present to advise seniors on how to live a healthier life according to a Daoist philosophy. 32 The forum was held again in 2010 and 2016 with similar themes, which demonstrates official support for Daoism at the

Series:

Nicholas Campion and Ronnie Gale Dreyer

Abstract

In India jyotiṣa, which includes mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and divination, is one of the six vedāṅgas, ancillary branches of the Vedas necessary for understanding them. The technical tradition visible today has recognisable roots in Vedic hymns and calendars dating from the late second to mid-first millennium bce. In the second century ce, however, the use of horoscopes (planetary positions at the moment of birth) to portend the fate of the individual was introduced from the classical west, thus integrating with the Vedic tradition to form a uniquely Indian astrology. Today, astrology is invariably concerned with questions of destiny, serving a variety of functions designed for people to manage the present and inquire into the future. Oftentimes, there are corresponding rituals, intended to facilitate harmonisation with the flow of time, or to amend a predicted future. This article highlights the history of astrology in India (from the Vedas through the introduction of horoscopes); its technical and interpretative procedures in light of Vedic tradition; planetary deities; temple ritual; concepts of soul, karma and time; pilgrimage (especially the Kumbha Mela); philosophical contexts (including those articulated in, and inherited from, the classical and Hellenistic world); archaeoastronomy (city design and temple architecture related to the stars); sociological contexts, political functions, and notions of world ages. Finally, it will consider colonial dynamics and the modern western adoption of Indian astrology in the context of theories of enchantment, and the postmodern in western ‘alternative’ spiritualities and New Age ideology.

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

market to another. To observers, the red-market religions are readily visible, the gray-market religions are less visible because of their ambiguous legal status, and the black-market religions are least visible because of their underground nature. In order to present a fuller picture of the religious

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

religions recognized by the state in the first part of the atlas. We also sketch some of the characteristics of adherents of gray-market and black-market religions. In the second part, we present the demographic characteristics of the general population in each province, along with pertinent religious

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

practice for following the Noble Eightfold Path ( bazhengdao 八正道). First, meditation allows Buddhists to practice “right mindfulness.” During meditation, Buddhists become intentionally aware of their present ideas, feelings, and bodily actions. Second, meditation helps Buddhists develop “right

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Baidu and Baike. In the following account, we risk describing the religious groups imperfectly in the hope that presenting these descriptions in an academic outlet will stimulate more scholarly research as well as ongoing critical discussion. The second limitation relates to the risks inherent in

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

: Distribution of religious sites by prefecture. PHOTO 14 A church at Xiwanzi, one of the sites of the 2022 Winter Olympics. Credit: Xiaoxiong Zhou Buddhism remains one of the major religions in Hebei. Both Han and Tibetan Buddhism are present in the province. The Chengde Mountain Resort 承德避暑山庄 built by and for