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Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

and offers monthly talks on Confucianism for the public. 14 At present, two major official organizations have taken responsibility for the development of Confucianism and the protection of Confucius temples in mainland China. In 1984, the China Confucius Foundation ( Zhongguo kongzi jijinhui 中国孔子基金会

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Disciple Sect Is Deceptive”; Kaifengliaoning, “Still Haunting—Be Alert to the Disciple Sect”; Liaoning Pindao, “A Way to Save the Followers of the Disciple Sect.” 4 Liu and Leung, “Organizational Revivalism.” 5 Erhimbayar, “Mongolian Buddhist Monasteries in Present-day Northeastern China.” 6 J. Zhang, “The

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

featured lectures by Daoist masters and exhibitions of Daoist culture. Medical experts were present to advise seniors on how to live a healthier life according to a Daoist philosophy. 32 The forum was held again in 2010 and 2016 with similar themes, which demonstrates official support for Daoism at the

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Edited by Michael Dillon, Yijiu JIN and Wai Yip Ho

This important collection of articles by leading Chinese scholars of Islamic studies reflects current thinking about the past and present condition of Islam in China. It has a strong focus on China’s north-west, the most important region for the study of Islam in China. Most contributions relate to the Hui (Chinese-speaking) Muslims of Gansu and Qinghai provinces and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region but there are also chapters on the Uyghurs of Xinjiang. An important feature of this book is the attention paid to the Sufi orders: the role of these networks, which embody an inner-directed and mystical aspect of Islam, is crucial to the understanding of Muslim communities in both historical and contemporary China.

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Karel Steenbrink

Catholics in Independent Indonesia: 1945-2010 concludes Steenbrink’s three volume historical account of Catholicism in Indonesia with a detailed report of the survival and growth of this minority religion in Muslim Indonesia since its independence in 1945.
Colonial Catholicism survived in the independent Republic of Indonesia during the nationalist Sukarno regime (1945-1965) and regained a new dynamic during the general religious revival that was part of the New Order of Soeharto after 1965. From a Dutch-inspired institution it became a fully Indonesian steered community with a modern and international character. The second half of the book will deal with the different regional developments in this vast country.

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

market to another. To observers, the red-market religions are readily visible, the gray-market religions are less visible because of their ambiguous legal status, and the black-market religions are least visible because of their underground nature. In order to present a fuller picture of the religious

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

religions recognized by the state in the first part of the atlas. We also sketch some of the characteristics of adherents of gray-market and black-market religions. In the second part, we present the demographic characteristics of the general population in each province, along with pertinent religious

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

practice for following the Noble Eightfold Path ( bazhengdao 八正道). First, meditation allows Buddhists to practice “right mindfulness.” During meditation, Buddhists become intentionally aware of their present ideas, feelings, and bodily actions. Second, meditation helps Buddhists develop “right

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

Baidu and Baike. In the following account, we risk describing the religious groups imperfectly in the hope that presenting these descriptions in an academic outlet will stimulate more scholarly research as well as ongoing critical discussion. The second limitation relates to the risks inherent in

Fenggang Yang and J. E. E. Pettit

: Distribution of religious sites by prefecture. PHOTO 14 A church at Xiwanzi, one of the sites of the 2022 Winter Olympics. Credit: Xiaoxiong Zhou Buddhism remains one of the major religions in Hebei. Both Han and Tibetan Buddhism are present in the province. The Chengde Mountain Resort 承德避暑山庄 built by and for