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Ephraem der Syrer und Basilios der Große, Justinian und Edessa

Die Begegnung griechischer und syrischer Traditionsautorität in der Ephraemvita und der miaphysitisch-chalkedonische Konflikt

Series:

Nestor Kavvadas

In Ephraem der Syrer und Basilios der Große, Justinian und Edessa untersucht Nestor Kavvadas die syrische Vita des Heiligen Ephraem, die in Edessa zum Höhepunkt des Konflikts zwischen der syrischen miaphysitischen Bewegung und der pro-chalkedonischen Kirchenpolitik Justinians komponiert wurde, und vergleicht sie mit einigen früheren griechisch-kappadokischen Hagiographien um Ephraem und Basilios von Caesarea, der in Ephraems Vita gleichsam als dessen Patron erscheint. Der Autor zeigt, dass während diese griechischen Hagiographien dazu bestimmt waren, Ephraem als Vater der chalkedonischen, byzantinischen orthodoxen Kirche zu reklamieren, die edessenische Ephraemvita Teil eines Versuchs der syrischen miaphysitischen Bewegung war, Exklusivrecht auf Ephraem sowie Basilios, und damit auf das Erbe der Kirchenväter, zu beanspruchen. Dann stellt der Autor heraus, wie die Ephraemvita, einmal „entschlüsselt“, ihr historisches Umfeld in ein neues Licht stellen kann.

In Ephrem der Syrer und Basilios der Große, Justinian und Edessa, Nestor Kavvadas examines the Syriac “Life” of Saint Ephrem, composed in Edessa at the time when the Syriac Miaphysite movement was opposing Justinian’s pro-Chalcedonian politics, and compares it with several earlier Greek Cappadocian hagiographies about Ephrem and Basil of Caesarea, who is presented almost as Ephrem’s patron in the latter’s “Life”. The author shows that while the Greek hagiographies were meant to (re)claim Ephrem as a Father of the (Chalcedonian) Byzantine Orthodox Church, Ephrem’s Syriac “Life” was part of an attempt by the Syriac Miaphysite movement to claim exclusive rights on both Ephrem and Basil as representatives of the entire legacy of the Church Fathers. Then, the author points out how the “Life”, once de-coded, can in turn shed light on its historical setting.

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Antonina Zhelyazkova and Egdūnas Račius

Muslims should believe and act in their local and national environment but also increasingly in the fast-globalizing world. Therefore, the chapters in the present volume dealing with individual cases, address, inter alia, such aspects as the current institutional (constitutional) status of Islam in the

Series:

Srđan Barišić

the Preševo Valley, where there are 58,903, or 66.2 % of the local population. In addition to these two regions, a significant Muslim community is present in Belgrade (20,366). Sandžak is home to 59.5 % and Preševo Valley to 24.6 % of Serbia’s Muslims. Ethnically, Bosniaks make the absolute majority

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Mykhaylo Yakubovych, Vitalii Shchepanskyi and Ayder Bulatov

heritage of Islam in Ukraine and its present state, which is a result of the Soviet regime’s policies. The modern processes in Ukrainian Islam are rooted in the end of the 1980s, when some level of religious liberties in the Soviet Union were allowed. This was also the time when Crimean Tatars began to

Series:

Galina M. Yemelianova

the Islamic East, the Russian authorities created two other muftiates in the Caucasus and the Crimea. By the end of the 19th century St. Petersburg, via the mufti’s appointees, established its control over the Muslims of substantial parts of present-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, Russia

Series:

Egdūnas Račius and Antonina Zhelyazkova

followers, at the same time many if not most are engaged in a bitter fight with established and state-recognized muftis for their own recognition by the very same state. In some cases presented in this volume, inter-muftiate (perceived here as an institute of mufti rather than a formal organization) rivalry

Series:

Egdūnas Račius

strong enough to organize them into a coherent faith community that would have mirrored the one in Poland. The Present: The Muftiate and Its Muftis The results of the two most recent (2001 and 2011) official censuses, which included a question on religious identity, revealed certain tendencies within

Series:

Nestor Kavvadas

). Jakob zählt in einem seiner Briefe die Kirchenväter auf, deren Werke die Norm der Orthodoxie bilden (s. Jacob of Edessa, Letter to John the Stylite: ms. British Library Add. 12.172, f. 100r–v, zitiert nach L. Van Rompay, Past and Present Perceptions of Syriac Literary Tradition, in: Hugoye 3 (2000

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Nestor Kavvadas

Rompay, Past and Present Perceptions , 78). 138 M. Mundell Mango, Patrons and Scribes Indicated in Syriac Manuscripts, 411 to 800  AD , in: JÖB 32 (1982), 3–12, hierzu 5; S. Brock, A Tentative Checklist of Dated Syriac Manuscripts up to 1300, in: Hugoye 15 (2012), 21–48, hier 25; Ders

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Edited by Egdunas Racius and Antonina Zhelyazkova

In Islamic Leadership in the European Lands of the Former Ottoman and Russian Empires the history and contemporary development of Islamic leadership in over a dozen of Eastern European countries is analysed. The studies are presented through a double prism: the institutional structures of the Muslim communities and the place of the muftiates in the current national constellations on one hand, and the dimension of the spiritual guidance emanating from the muftiates on the other. The latter includes aspects such as the muftiates’ powers and role in supervision of mosques and other religious institutions, production, dissemination and control of religious knowledge and discussions on traditional and non-traditional forms of Islam engaged in by the muftiates.

This is the first comprehensive edited volume on the subject.

Contributors are: Srđan Barišić, Ayder Bulatov, Marko Hadjdinjak, Olsi Jazexhi, Memli Sh. Krasniqi, Armend Mehmeti, Dino Mujadžević, Agata S. Nalborczyk, Egdūnas Račius, Aziz Nazmi Shakir, Vitalii Shchepanskyi, Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen, Daša Slabčanka, Aid Smajić, Irina Vainovski-Mihai, Mykhaylo Yakubovych, and Galina Yemelianova.