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Saïd Amir Arjomand

claims to be God and admits the dignitaries, when they present themselves, by putting his hand over their heads, while his forty khalifa s do the same with the lesser people who join the movement. A letter from Constantinople on March 7, 1502 mentions the rumors that 500 Turks wanted to join “the new

Saïd Amir Arjomand

, was exiled to Turkey and later settled in Najaf in Iraq. The Shah scored a victory by presenting Khomeini’s opposition as ‘black reaction’ to his reform programme. During the subsequent fifteen years of relentless opposition from exile, Khomeini did, on occasion, dismiss the Shah’s reform programme as

Saïd Amir Arjomand

Wilferd Madelung has offered us a magisterial overview of the development of the idea of authority in Twelver Shiʿism. 1 The present paper is narrower in its temporal scope but is more broadly based on source materials that are not confined to jurisprudence and include works on statecraft and

Saïd Amir Arjomand

was very much a product of the children of the Islamic revolution, and can be presented as one of its long-term, unintended consequences. The movement’s leading figure since the early 1990s, ʿAbdolkarim Sorush, is a philosopher of science who had been trained in pharmacology in London and was

Saïd Amir Arjomand

, he presented obedience to the hierocratic authority of the mujtahid in matters relating to the Sacred Law as an ethical obligation. Furthermore, the Muqaddas affirmed the layman’s duty to act according to the ruling of the mujtahid , once such ruling was issued, 96 and asserted the incumbency of

Saïd Amir Arjomand

political arena in order to pressure the Shah to grant Iran a constitution, the aims of the movement were presented as fully consistent with Islam, and implicitly with the interest of the hierocracy to limit the power of the autocratic state. Therefore, from the very beginning in the spring of 1905, the

Saïd Amir Arjomand

, for instance, Ḥojjat al-Eslām Rabbāni-Amlashī had argued that it was time to rescue the institution of marjaʿiyyat-e taqlīd from its “present unsatisfactory condition” by transforming it into the welāyat-e faqīh , pointing out that if plans for doing so had been devised earlier the Islamic

Saïd Amir Arjomand

especially should do everything possible in offering gifts for the journeys, and consider the above-mentioned personage and his retinue present even in their absence and discharge all obligations. When the above-mentioned Guide of the People ( muqtadā-ye anām ) is at the foot of the celestial throne, all the

Saïd Amir Arjomand

inflection by being presented as his uprising ( khoruj ), and their youthful Shaykhoghlu Ismāʿil similarly called the Lord of Uprising ( sahib-e khoruj ) and presented as his messianic avenger of the blood of Husayn. As such, he would lead a world revolution against oppression ( zolm ) and to avenge Husayn

Saïd Amir Arjomand

. Nowadays all the Europeans are followers of the philosophers, and are impertinent 1 in matters of religion. The church bells toll once a week on Sunday and the lowly and the masses go to temples. The priests are also present. The sages and the leaders profess to the unity of God but consider the other