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Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

organisations and institutions would be expanded. In general terms, the Church established a climate of cooperation with the regime although certain dissident sectors arose which questioned the authoritarian nature of the latter. This did not mean the disappearance of anticlericalism, which was as present in

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

and messianic qualities of these parties and the increasing popular influence they had developed in a short period. In all three cases, their leaders were presented as the only men capable of redeeming the country, and they created a series of symbols, chants and rituals to reinforce that message

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

Fernando Pacheco, president of this association in Cusco, in 1889 against the proposals presented to the Congress by G. Alejandro Seoane, Minister of Justice and Religion. 27 The minister had demanded that the Congress enact measures such as the subordination of seminaries to civil authority, intervention

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

, that of the white men, united in the task of private profit … At present, Peru’s ethnic duality is the most serious problem of the political and social life, and this heterogeneity, which the centuries have been unable to reconcile or reduce, constitutes the danger that our country will not attain in

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

still governed by Pius ix ’s encyclical Preclara inter beneficia (1874), which had been approved by the Peruvian State during the provisional government of Nicolás de Piérola in 1880. 5 This document stipulated that the government had the right to present to the Holy See candidates for the

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

development, social mobilisation and there emerged new intellectual approaches towards Peruvian national identity and problems. As follows, the present research analyses how and with what nuances these changes in global Catholicism manifested themselves in the Peruvian case during those years. It is worth

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

periodical visitatio liminum and obligatory visits to Rome every five years, where they had to present a detailed report on the conditions of their dioceses. He also encouraged a greater participation by the laity in the activities of the church, emphasising the necessity of an organised apostolate and

Series:

Ricardo D. Cubas Ramacciotti

restricted exclusively to dogmatic matters. 24 If it is true that these elements were present in the relations between church and state during previous centuries, the Bourbon monarchs used this power to expand the jurisdiction of the Patronato even more. 25 In addition, theorists such as the Mexican

Series:

Patrick D. Bowen

Abstract

This chapter examines various smaller Islamic sects and lesser-known figures from the 1930s and early 1940s. These groups usually had ties to both black nationalism and the earlier Islamic movements, and one—the Ahmadiyya movement—had initially formed in the early 1920s. The factors contributing to the rise and fall of the Ahmadiyya groups; the Fahamme community; and the various organizations connected to Satokata Takahashi, Muhammad Yusuf Khan, and Sufi Abdul Hamid are presented to highlight the commonalities between the Islamic currents of the period.

Series:

Michael F. Lombardo

’s Weekly . 33 Given the extent of Wynne’s long career—he was a Jesuit for seventy-two years—and the extensive nature of his body of work, an exhaustive study of his legacy is beyond the scope of this book. Instead, the book will present a broad overview of Wynne’s work before narrowing its focus down to