there are around 80 of them), no matter whether they are present in one or several regions, are regarded as centralised religious organisations of Muslims (TsROM). In other words, the law and the Russian authorities do not distinguish between regional and federal muftiates. A fairly simple procedure for
Edited by Thijl Sunier
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Reconquista that have epitomised such (national) histories till now. Convivencia holds that Arab Muslim rule constituted an enclave of enlightened, interreligious tolerance in an intolerant, backward Western Europe. In contrast, twentieth-century Spanish historians present Spain’s Islamic period as one of
Nella van den Brandt
of individual autonomy. 8 In this article, I do not aim to present a conclusive answer to what is really at stake in current debates about Islam, Muslims and Muslim women. The above discussion of “the Muslim question” is, however, meant to show its glocal multiplicity and conceptual and empirical
spreading Islam was also suggested as a justification. The fatwa explained that mortgages advance proselytizing efforts in two ways: Muslims will present a respectable face to non-Muslims by becoming homeowners, and the relief from the financial burden of renting a house will make it possible for Muslims
Public Marginality or Spiritual Privatisation?
official religious authorities have torn religion out of the hands of believers to present a supposedly pure religious identity, 3 obscuring and formatting all the local elements that contradict central policy. 4 Even some academic studies have considered Balkan Islam 5 from this political point of view
a Case Study of Selected Muslims in North East England
W.A. Amir Zal
resulted in pressure on Muslims to present themselves to others in non-threatening and welcoming ways, despite being subjected to covert and overt discrimination, which they felt in various contexts (Pihlaja and Thompson 2017). For another example, the media was responsible for negative portrayals of the
demonstrated that senior management at the school also felt it was inappropriate to show the video footage to the children. It is important to note all members of the senior management team present at the meeting were White, Christian. Figure 3 One of many “secret” emails sent between staff at the school. This
Edited by Michael Dillon, Yijiu JIN and Wai Yip Ho
A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia
Philanthropy is an indication of the strength of civil society. When the state was weak, philanthropy developed powerfully and was used to challenge the state. When the state was strong, Muslim civil society tended to weaken but still found ways to use philanthropic practices in the public sphere to promote social change.