This essay presents an overview of the history of foregrounding theory coupled to a critical analysis of how progress has been made through systematic conceptual development, textual analysis, and empirical research. In the course of this retrospective, recommendations are made for prospective evolution. It is argued that there is a need for more independent testing of theories, statistical qualifications, and replications of earlier studies. As an example of how to deploy these recommendations, the second part of the essay singles out two areas where the theory of foregrounding needs to be reconsidered. It is first argued that so far only general effects of foregrounding have been investigated, and that we need more information on the effects of individual foregrounding devices. Secondly, it is argued that the limitation of empirical research on foregrounding to English-speaking countries should be superseded and that we should engage in more intercultural research. We then report on a reading experiment in which the effect of internal deviation was investigated in six different cultural contexts with a total of 275 participants. The results show that there is an overall enhancement of the sense of beauty as a consequence of internal deviation, that this effect occurs in all cultures (except for The Netherlands), and that simultaneously cultures also show significant differences in their reactions to the text, including the internal deviation. Since this is the first time that the theory of foregrounding is corroborated interculturally, we believe the results clearly indicate the theory’s future prospects.
Stylistics: Prospect & Retrospect looks backward toward classic and foundational approaches and texts that helped to establish the field of stylistics. It also looks forward by examining recent innovations that seem likely to alter the ways in which style is studied in the years to come. The essays presented here, written by an array of experts from nine countries on four continents, employ a wide range of approaches to works that range from romantic poetry to contemporary fiction and from traditional folktales and nursery rhymes to contemporary film. The variety of authors, approaches, and works found here testifies to the vitality of the field of stylistics, and these essays should appeal to all those interested in the nature of style and in the history and future of stylistics.
Death is a topic people are reluctant to ponder. Neither is dying a process that is usually being openly discussed. However, on a variety of occasions, dying and death are on a person’s minds, under some sensitive circumstances, he or she are eager to discuss with a close person, a friend, a professional.
The present volume, the second in the Series on Dying and Death, is meant to enrich personal experience of dying or death by providing its reader with knowledge and understanding of some aspects of dying or death.
Section 1 describes practices of mourning, in different times and places: USA during the Civil War (
Ashley Byock), the Island of Viz, between Croatia and Italy (
Kathleen Young), present day Israel (
Asa Kasher), medieval Serbia (
Mira Crouch) and post-Holocaust USA (
Section 2 consists of reflections on mourning. It includes philosophical discussions of Friendship (
Gary Peters), Grace (
Dana Freibach-Heifetz), and the Other (
Havi Carel), all in the context of mourning, as well as Mourning itself as a skill (
Marguerite Peggy Flynn).
Section 3 brings papers on culture and suicide, in early modern Holland (
Laura Cruz), in historical Japan (
Lawrence Fouraker), as well as in the Jazz age (
Section 4 discusses different predicaments of medics facing death and dying: terminal diagnosis (
Angela Armstrong-Coster), palliative patients (
Anna Taube), and the hospice setting (
Aspects of Metamorphosis: Fictional Representations of the Becoming Human explores the various forms of metamorphosis found in literature – mostly modern fiction but informed by earlier examples – and the premises upon which the literature of transformation may be said to depend. Instances of metamorphosis are very widespread in modern literature but as yet there has been no attempt to describe this literary-anthropological phenomenon from a larger perspective. This study approaches such a task. The focus of
Aspects of Metamorphosis is on human-animal fictional metamorphoses which embody the concept of becoming-human. Gilles Deleuze describes metamorphosis (especially in Kafka) as the becoming-animal. Across the wide range of examples of literary metamorphosis in different languages and cultures, I describe the becoming-animal as an aspect of the becoming human, a radical approach to mankind’s perception of itself, and restoration to itself, through an animal other. Franz Kafka is in many ways an odd man out in the crowd of modern metamorphosists. Other authors across borders, political, geographical and linguistic, present a humanist and moralist perspective that does not represent a fundamental break with the norms and cultural traditions rooted in the past.
Jane Austen’s worldwide popularity is not least due to the remaking of her novels for the visual media. Of the fifty-odd Austen related productions since 1938, forty-three of them adapt her novels to the various screens of cinema, television, computer and tablet. However, her attraction for film-makers is undoubtedly promoted by her own qualities. As a novelist, Jane Austen has been particularly recognized for her ironic voice, which dominates all her stories and gives the readers a peculiar perspective on her world. Do film-makers want this, and if so, how do they transmit her attitude of amused distance? In the present book, Marie N. Sørbø investigates the function and targets of irony in two novels and seven films.
Irony and Idyll is the first book-length study of Austen’s irony since 1952, and the only comparative analysis of all the available screen adaptations of
Pride and Prejudice and
Mansfield Park. On the bicentenary of their publication, these novels continue to influence modern culture.
Il y a soixante ans Ely Carcassonne fit paraître son
?Etat présent des études sur Fénelon, ouvrage qui a rendu de très grands services à tous ceux qui depuis lors ont écrit sur l'archevêque de Cambrai. Carcassonne, mort peu de temps après, aurait sans doute été heureusement surpris s'il avait pu connaître la richesse des travaux qui ont suivi les siens ce dernier demi-siècle. L'état présent des travaux sur Fénelon n'est plus du tout en 1999 ce qu'il était en 1939. La bibliographie assez impressionnante que René Faille a rédigée pour ce volume en fait foi.
La publication de la
Correspondance de Fénelon , achevée en 1999, dont les Tables paraîtront sous peu, puis celle des
Oeuvres de Fénelon dans la Bibliothèque de la Pléiade constituent sans doute l'aboutissement de ce nouvel élan des études féneloniennes, dont Jean Orcibal et plus tard Jacques Le Brun ont été les principaux instigateurs. Leurs éditions critiques forment aussi le point de départ des recherches qu'une nouvelle génération de chercheurs, avec d'autres centres d'intérêt et d'autres orientations de travail, va entreprendre ou a déjà entrepris.'où l'idée de faire, plus d'un demi-siècle après l'ouvrage d'Ely Carcassonne, un
Etat présent des travaux sur Fénelon II , dans l'espoir qu'un tel recueil pourra rendre à cette nouvelle génération des services analogues à ceux qu'a fournis le fameux
Etat présent de Carcassonne à leurs prédécesseurs. Mais ce que ce dernier avait fait tout seul, est devenu en 1999 le travail d'une équipe de 'féneloniens'. Les différents membres de cette équipe ont eu une double tâche: dire ce qui leur paraissait essentiel dans le domaine qui leur avait été confié et, surtout, donner un aperçu historique et critique des travaux parus dans ce même domaine ces soixante dernières années. On verra que certains auteurs se sont surtout arrêtés au premier objectif. Il n'empêche que dans son ensemble ce recueil contient d'abord l'histoire de ce qui s'est fait, ce dernier demi-siècle, autour de l'oeuvre de l'archevêque de Cambrai. Nous espérons que, dans cette qualité avant tout, il pourra être utile aux lecteurs.
Pour leur délibérations, les auteurs de cet ouvrage se sont réunis, à Groningue, aux Pays Bas, en juin 1999, trois cents ans après la parution de
Télémaque , trois cents ans également après la condamnation des
Maximes des saints . Ce recueil est donc aussi quelque peu une commémoration.
Evil is not only an abstract concept to be analyzed intellectually, but a concrete reality that we all experience and wrestle with on an ongoing basis. To truly understand evil we must always approach it from both angles: the intellective and the phenomenological. This same assertion resounds through each of the papers in this volume, in which an interdisciplinary and international group (including nurses, psychologists, philosophers, professors of literature, history, computer studies, and all sorts of social science) presented papers on cannibalism, the Holocaust, terrorism, physical and emotional abuse, virtual and actual violence, and depravity in a variety of media, from film to literature to animé to the Internet. Conference participants discussed villains and victims, dictators and anti-heroes, from 921 AD to the present, and considered the future of evil from a number of theoretical perspectives. Personal encounters with evil were described and analyzed, from interviews with political leaders to the problems of locating and destroying land mines in previous war zones. The theme of responsibility and thinking for the future is very much at the heart of these papers: how to approach evil as a question to be explored, critiqued, interrogated, reflected upon, owned. The authors urge an attitude of openness to new interpretations, new perspectives, new understanding. This may not be a comfortable process; it may in fact be quite disturbing. But ultimately, it may be the only way forward towards a truly ethical response. The papers in this collection provide a wealth of food for thought on this most important question.
Here is presented for the first time a methodology for the investigation of norms which operate in the field of audiovisual translation. Based on the findings of the polysystem approach to translation, the present work aims to demonstrate that it is possible to investigate audiovisual translation and the norms that operate in it in a systematic way.
Human agents, (audiovisual) products, recipients, and the mode itself are thoroughly investigated and stratified under a lower, middle and upper level. Specific techniques for collecting and analysing data are suggested.
The model is tentatively applied to the investigation of norms which seem to determine the choice between subtitling and revoicing children's TV programmes in Greece. However, one will soon notice that the same model could be applied for the investigation of audiovisual translation norms in any other country. But not only that: one will quickly realise that, with minute modifications, the same model can prove effective for the study of norms in other modes of written translation too. Therefore, this volume can be of a high interest not only to audiovisual translation scholars and practitioners, but to general translation scholars and students of translation proper as well.
While Plato recommended expelling poets from the ideal society, W. H. Auden famously declared that poetry makes nothing happen. The 19 contributions to the present book avoid such polarized views and, responding in different ways to the “ethical turn” in narrative theory, explore the varied ways in which narratives encourage readers to ponder matters of right and wrong. All work from the premise that the analysis of narrative ethics needs to be linked to a sensitivity to esthetic (narrative) form. The ethical issues are accordingly located on different levels. Some are clearly presented as thematic concerns within the text(s) considered, while others emerge through (or are generated by) the presentation of character and event by means of particular narrative techniques. The objects of analysis include such well-known or canonical texts as Biblical Old Testament stories, Mark Twain’s
Huckleberry Finn, J. R. R. Tolkien’s
The Lord of the Rings, Vladimir Nabokov’s
Lolita, Jonathan Littell’s
The Kindly Ones, Ann Radcliffe’s
The Italian and Matthew Lewis’s
The Monk. Others concentrate on less-well-known texts written in languages other than English. There are also contributions that investigate theoretical issues in relation to a range of different examples.