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Edited by Vera Gowlland-Debbas and Vincent Chetail

The present volume highlights the new challenges of the international protection of refugees fifty years after the adoption of the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.
Focusing on the problems faced by Switzerland in the field of international protection of refugees as well as on the specificity of its asylum law and practice, this publication addresses the refugee problem from a national, European and international perspective. The Swiss experience serves to illustrate the wider problematic of on the one hand, the tensions between security, political and humanitarian concerns encountered by refugee-receiving states, and on the other, the need to preserve an international refugee protection regime which remains an essential component of international law and relations for so long as political solutions are not brought to the root causes of refugee exodus.
This reflection on the international protection of refugees is organized around four main themes. The first examines Switzerland's response in the past to mass influx, in the light of historical case studies and the evolution of Swiss asylum law and practice. The second focuses on the question of access of refugees to asylum territories and refugee status determination procedures within the framework of the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees and the current Swiss asylum law. The third centres on the wider protection regime currently being forged in Europe to address a broader category of refugees, including solutions for temporary and subsidiary protection. The final theme revolves around return of refugees, including those under the Dayton and recent Kosovo agreements and covers reintegration of returnees, assistance and long-term development.
This work is based on papers presented at a colloquium of the Graduate Institute of the International Studies in Geneva which was organised in collaboration with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as a contribution to the 50th anniversaries of the UNHCR and the Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.

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M.R. Alborzi

The legal instruments, on which refugees can rely to secure international protection, are the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. Supported by soft laws which were developed by the international community during the past decades, they form the “protection regime for refugees” which is set to respond to all refugee situations.
This book is an evaluation of the international response to a major protracted humanitarian situation. As such, it is the first comprehensive account and assessment of the effectiveness of international law in dealing with Iraqi refugees during the regime of Saddam Hussein. It contains detailed information and analysis of the history and behaviour of Iraq and its neighbouring states as regards refugees, as well as of the operations of international organizations, both inter-governmental and non-governmental, and legal responses to humanitarian needs. The factual context in which the legal analysis is presented grounds the legal theory.

Edited by Anne Bayefsky

The Refugees and Human Rights Series aims to meet the increasing need for literature which probes the nature and causes of forced migration, the modalities and procedures employed when refugees present themselves, and the manner in which the human rights of refugees are, or should be, promoted and protected.

The series published one volume over the last 5 years.

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Ann Vibeke Egglie

Situations of mass refugee influx represent by their very size and urgency daunting evidence of human suffering and cruelty. Consequently, the level and quality of refugee protection in times of crisis is tested. The choices to be made have to take into due consideration the prevalent conditions and restraints. They will probably always result in compromises. The question is whom or what the compromises are about?
The focus in the present volume has been set on a detailed examination of some legal preconceptions commonly found in situations of mass refugee in-migration. The author concludes that situations when refugees arrive en masse do not, as a rule, qualify as a public emergency that threatens the life of the nation under contemporary international human rights law, and that mass expulsion of refugees as an emergency measure is prohibited at all times when this entails the risk of violating rights immune to derogation.

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Alfred M. Boll

This book is a comprehensive overview of multiple nationality in international law, and contains a survey of current State practice covering over 75 countries. It examines the topic in light of the historical treatment of multiple nationality by States, international bodies and commentators, setting out the general trends in international law and relations that have influenced nationality. While the book's purpose is not to debate the merits of multiple nationality, but to present actual state practice, it does survey arguments for and against multiple nationality, and considers States' motivations in adopting a particular attitude toward the topic. As a reference work, the volume includes a detailed examination of the nature of nationality under international law and the concepts of nationality and citizenship under municipal law. The survey of State practice also constitutes a valuable resource for practitioners.

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Edited by Massimo Condinanzi, Alessandra Lang and Bruno Nascimbene

Citizenship of the Union and Freedom of Movement of Persons, sets out to analyse in detail the various provisions of Community law which confer upon individuals the right to move about, reside and work in the Member States. It also examines the procedural safeguards which set those fundamental rights apart from any deriving from other international bodies or organisations and point up the originality of the Community system. Citizenship of the Union entails freedom of movement under the current Treaties and also under the Treaty of Lisbon, in which the unified treatment of the rules, by contrast with the existing pillars of Community and European Union law, might be expected to confer new impetus on the realisation of the area of freedom, security and justice. If there is truly to be such an area, there must be unified, not merely coordinated action. Judicial cooperation must be tightened in favour of the Union and, more importantly, individuals, be they Community citizens or indeed nationals of third countries, given the increasing trend towards a kind of integration which focuses less on formal data such as nationality and more on factors such as residence, employment and social integration. The book pays particular attention to this last aspect and its political and legal implications. The "communitarisation" of immigration policy (the new Title IV of the EC Treaty mentioned above) and the perspectives opened up by the enlargement to 27 Member States (and more) and by the Treaty of Lisbon, provide the framework for the treatment given in the present work.

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Georgia Papagianni

The main objective of this book is to present the on-going process of European integration via a comprehensive analysis of the institutional dynamics of, and politics linked with, the emerging migration law and policy of the European Union. More specifically, it presents the historical evolution, the main institutional legislative and policy steps, the position of, and interactions among, the different actors, and the factors impeding the formation of a common policy at EU level. On this basis a critical analysis is provided of the main institutional problems, the current policy framework, the overarching rationale as well as of the content and quality of the nascent EU migration law.
The book is divided into three parts. The first two parts provide a comprehensive study of the institutional framework and the substantive EC/EU law respectively. The third and final part provides a more general analysis of the policy-making process. Since the major achievements in the field of migration are recent, the book focuses to a great extent on the post-Amsterdam era. However, for reasons of coherence and in order to better evaluate recent developments, a concise overview of the origins of this policy is provided. Moreover, special emphasis is placed on the Schengen acquis, since its mark on European affairs has been and remains pronounced. Overall the attempt has been to provide an account, which is up to date with extensive historical references and combines both an academic and practical perspective to the legal and political issues involved. The approach based on the above elements will contribute to a new understanding of the main aspects of EU migration law and its policy ramifications and will be of use to both academics and practitioners alike.

Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union

The Legal Measures and Social Consequences of Criminal Law in Member States on Trafficking and Smuggling in Human Beings

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Edited by Elspeth Guild and Paul Minderhoud

This is a study of the legal framework on criminal measures on trafficking and/or smuggling and facilitating illegal entry in six Member States: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK, and the European Union. This issue is at the nexus of migration and criminal law. The system of criminal law in the Member States is a central part of the balance of the powers of the authorities and the rights of the citizen. The way in which civil liberties of the individual are weighed in comparison with public protection duties by the authorities is in essence a constitutional issue. The treatment of foreigners, in particular as regards their entry onto the territory and residence is not part of the constitutional settlements, but a field governed by state discretion and exceptionalism. The rules and administrative measures regarding entry, residence and expulsion of foreigners is not subject to the same civil liberties guarantees of due process as apply in criminal law.
This comparative study examines how, in each Member State, the insertion of immigration into criminal law takes place. Do the rules of criminal law in respect of due process take precedence over the lower evidential and procedural requirements which are applied in the field of immigration? How does the criminal justice system deal with this new field where central constitutional issues are not present? There are two levels on which the insertion of immigration into criminal law takes place – the legal and the social. This book deals with both. On the one hand it looks at the laws and the court decisions on criminal trials in respect of immigrants for immigration related offences, on the other hand it looks at how the society (political actors, media, interest groups etc) discuss and develop this issue.
This book is designed for policymakers, academics, students and activists concerned about the European Union.