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Encyclopaedia Iranica

Volume XVI Fascicule 4


Edited by Elton L. Daniel

The Encyclopædia Iranica is dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent. It also includes scholarly articles related to the reciprocal influences between Persia and its neighbors, extending from pre-history to the present. The disciplines represented include: anthropology, archaeology, geography, art history, ethnology, sociology, economics, history of religion, philosophy, mysticism, history of science and medicine, Islamic history, botany, zoology, folklore, development of agriculture and industry, political science, international relations, and diplomatic history. Fascicule 4 of Volume XVI (pp. 337-448) starts with the article on the Kešaʾi Dialect and ends with the entry on the Khavaran-nama.


Edited by Fabrizio Speziale

This volume looks at hospitals in the post-medieval Indo-Iranian world from various perspectives. During the Safavid-Mughal periods hospitals were still tied to Avicennian medicine. However, in Qajar Iran and British India hospitals became important instruments for the spread of modern Western medicine. The papers in this volume present a significant panorama on the history of medicine and medical institutions in Iran and India during the early modern and the modern periods. The portrait that emerges is not homogeneous, but instead shows ambivalent and contrasting images. Hospitals can be seen as powerful symbols of the Muslim scientific civilization and then of modern medicine, nevertheless, they remained institutions relegated to the fringes of society – regarded with suspicion and usually reserved for the poor.
Contributors include: Cristiana Bastos, Willem Floor, Claudia Preckel, Omid Rezai, Fabrizio Speziale, Hasan Tadjbakhsh, Anna Vanzan

This book is copublished with the Institut Français de Recherche en Iran (IFRI) as no. 74 in the Bibliothéque Iranienne series.

Le présent ouvrage propose un panorama significatif d’études portant sur l’histoire et le rôle des hôpitaux dans le monde irano-indien au cours de la première modernité et de l’époque moderne. Les contributions rassemblées dans ce volume étudient l’hôpital depuis plusieurs perspectives, examinant cet établissement tantôt comme une institution scientifique, tantôt en fonction de son utilité sociale. Ce qui émerge de ces travaux ne constitue pas un portrait homogène, mais plutôt une image ambivalente et contrastée de ces établissements. Les hôpitaux peuvent être vus comme des symboles puissants de la piété des souverains musulmans, ou de la civilisation scientifique musulmane, puis du triomphe de la science occidentale moderne. Cependant, pour une très longue période, l’hôpital demeure une institution reléguée à la marge de la société, regardée avec suspicion et en particulier réservée aux indigents.

Ce livre est une coédition avec l’Institut Français de Recherche en Iran (IFRI) comme n◦ 74 dans la série Bibliothèque Iranienne

Trans-Sectual Identity

Materials for the Study of the Praśnottararatnamālikā, a Hindu/Jaina/Buddhist Catechism (I)

Jonathan A. Silk and Péter-Dániel Szántó

text took place quite early, in 1858, with its publication in Tibetan by Anton Schiefner. 2 He knew the text under the title Vimalapraśnottararatnamālā , under which it is catalogued in Tibetan sources (see below), and presented it in Tibetan, with a German translation. This was followed in 1867 by

Julian Kreidl

Although our knowledge of Pashto etymology has greatly increased in the last century, most notably due to George Morgenstierne’s “A (New) Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto” (1927, 2nd and improved edition 2003), the origin of many Pashto words remained unknown so far. The present paper discusses eight further Pashto etymologies. Four of these are inherited from Proto-Iranian, two are Indo-Aryan, one is of mixed origin, and one is originally Arabic. Discussing the hail word in Pashto, I also argue for the loan of the Bactrian cognate into Persian.

Negahban, Farzin and Salim, Abdol-Amir

Abū Ḥudhayfa (d. 12/633) was the son of ʿUtba b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd Shams b. ʿAbd Manāf. A prominent Companion of the Prophet, he was one of the first converts to Islam and one of the group of Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and later to Medina. He was present at many battles that were

Farhang Mehrvash

will present himself as a possessor of divine powers and set in motion the greatest tribulation in human history, which will continue until his ultimate defeat. The mention of the Dajjāl in Prophetic tra...

Negahban, Farzin and Pat, Fariba

, a province of south-western Iran with a present-day area of just over 16,000 sq. km, the second smallest in the country. The province encompasses two mountainous regions in the central portion of the Zagros range on latitude 31˚10’ to 32˚45’N and longitude 49˚35’ to 51˚21’E. It borders Iṣfahān to

Gholami, Rahim and Hamedani, Ali Karam

(also Bihistūn, Bīsitūn, Bīstūn), the name of a sub-district and town in the present-day district of Harsīn in Kirmānshāh province in western Iran, celebrated for a cuneiform inscription carved onto a cliff in Old Persian, Babylonian and Elamite, engraved in 522–521 and detailing the story of the

Ja‘far Shi‘ar and Sadeq Sajjadi

Zamānī, 29, quoting from Khwāja Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī). Despite this, its exact location is now unknown. It has been suggested that Ābaskūn was situated on the site of the present-day village of Khwāja...

Qasemi, Jawad and Reza, Enayatollah

Abkhazia (Abkhāz) lies in the northwest Caucasus on the east coast of the Black Sea. Its present name is the Republic of Abkhazia. It comprises 8600 (Akiner, 222) or 8700 square kilometres (Narody Kavkaza, 2/373), and had a population of approximately 550,000 (1991 census), which had fallen by 2003