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A Circle of Friends

Romanian Revolutionaries and Political Exile, 1840-1859

Series:

Angela Jianu

Angela Jianu explores the lives and activities of a group of Romanian revolutionaries exiled in Paris, London and the Middle East in the aftermath of the insurrections of 1848. Drawing largely on diaries, memoirs and private correspondence, A Circle of Friends is a social history of political exile, presenting the personal life dramas of the protagonists within the wider context of the European post-revolutionary turmoil of the 1850s. Exile and political repression allied this group not only to their Hungarian and Polish peers, but also to French republicans, English radicals and Italian freedom-fighters. Their story reveals the existence of transnational networks of left-wing, radical and republican movements in mid-nineteenth-century Europe against the background of nation-building projects in East-Central Europe.
Russian Genealogy

Family ties
The major significance attached to family class ties in Imperial Russia (right up to the 1917 October Revolution) is a well-known fact. This means that information about the family ties of some historical figure or other may help to explain the reasons for some of his/her actions, any career advancements, as well as other events. This was an entirely typical aspect of life in Russian pre-revolutionary society. Genealogical literature was very well established in Russia between the 18th and early 20th centuries, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint. Family trees were published for virtually all the relatively well-known families. Furthermore, groups of nobles published lists of nobles in their own provinces.

The earliest important work
The earliest important work in Russian genealogy was a publication by N.I. Novikov known as the Velvet Book ( Genealogical Book of Russian and Emigré Princes and Nobility, St Petersburg 1787). Although the material in this work has been elucidated by subsequent publications, it contains the closest reproduction of the genealogical system used prior to Peter the Great. The Velvet Book also provided the basis for the structure of power right up to the end of the 17th century. This covered the formation of the Boyar's Duma and the introduction of mestnichestvo, a system of precedence where positions of representatives from the various families were defined in a hierarchy of power.

Development of Genealogy
The major highlight of the development of genealogy in Russian was the publication of the 4-volume reference work by Prince Petr Dolgorukov entitled Russian Genealogical Book (St Petersburg, 1854-1857). However, the impartiality of some of the information provided in the publication led to the author being condemned and exiled, which meant that his work remained unfinished. Nevertheless, this publication provided the first comprehensive collection of information about the main noble families and most important of all, it encouraged the further development of genealogy. Dolgorukov's material, including the unpublished material, was used by A. Lobanov-Rostovsky in his two-volume publication Russian Genealogical Book (1st edition published St Petersburg, 1873-75). During preparation of this work for publication, particularly in the case of the second edition, the major specialists in the field of genealogy at that time also became involved: L.M. Savelov, V.V. Rummel et al.

Russian and Ukrainian nobility
The work produced by V. Rummel and V. Golubtsov, Genealogical Collection of Russian Noble Families, 2 vol. (St Petersburg 1886-1887) was the continuation of Prince A. Lobanov-Rostovsky's work. This publication mainly focuses on the families omitted by Dolgorukov and Lobanov-Rostovsky. Unfortunately, the third and fourth volumes of this publication were not printed. The major reference work on the Ukrainian nobility, which is almost not referred to at all in other genealogical publications, is the work of V. Mozdalevsky, Genealogy of Minor Russia, 4 vol., (Kiev, 1908-1914). This publication remains virtually the only source detailing the history of the families described in it even right up to the present day. A particularly eminent position in Russian genealogy is occupied by Leonid Mikhailovich Savelov, the major Russian specialist in the field of genealogy. His works, primarily his bibliographical publications, are the prime source any researcher will initially refer to when seeking information about the Russian nobility. For this reason, the present collection contains all his major works, the most important among them being The Bibliographical Index of the history, heraldry and genealogy of the Russian nobility, 2nd edition (Ostrogozhsk, 1897). There is also a manuscript included in the collection, which is a work by the genealogist, K. Gubastov, entitled Genealogical information about the Russian nobility and noble families originating from natural unions. The manuscript contains notes and corrections from another renowned genealogist, A. Sivers.

Genealogical Notes
An important source of information for history researchers is also provided by genealogical notes. Although they do not provide the reader with genealogical tables or family trees, they do give details of sources of genealogical information. Furthermore, these works can provide information about how reliable certain published genealogical material is, as well as about the problems which have remained unsolved when the final genealogical table has been prepared (information about persons with the same surname, but not featuring in the family tree, for instance). Finally, they also contain information on the history of families for whom complete family trees were never prepared. Frequent references are made to these sources by L. Savelov's work Genealogical Notes, containing information about ancient noble families up until 1700, but which unfortunately only goes as far as the letter "E".

Periodical publications
There is a wide range of genealogical information contained in two periodical publications devoted to genealogy. In 1898 the Russian Genealogical Society was formed in St Petersburg and it began issuing the publication Russian Genealogical Society News from 1900. In 1904 an alternative association was set up in Moscow by L.M. Savelov called the Historical Genealogy Society, which published the Historical Genealogy Society Chronicle. The "News" mainly published material about the history of families in the 16th and 17th centuries, whereas the "Chronicle" dealt with a much wider range of issues dating from the birth of Russian statehood up to the 20th century.

Necropolises
One other significant source of information for historical and genealogical research is provided by necropolises containing lists of people buried there. While not, strictly speaking, part of genealogical literature, they provide, nevertheless, valuable information on the history of families. They have a major role to play in the works of V.I. Saitov produced under the patronage of Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich and in those of V. Chernopatov. This includes necropolises in Moscow, St Petersburg, various provinces in Russian and abroad.

Limited access to publications
In general, genealogical publications have had very low circulation rates, with numbers of copies ranging from 20 to a few hundred. Moreover, many print runs have not completely sold out (as was the case, for example, for the work by V. Rummel and V. Golubtsov, which led to publication being stopped). It is therefore hardly surprising that one famous genealogist in Russia called his regularly published notes "For the few". As a result of this, there is, in fact, limited access to this type of information nowadays. Only a few major libraries in Russia and the rest of the world have relatively complete collections of this literature. These include the State Historical Public Library of Russia, which has provided the basis for the present collection. The Historical Library, which has been built up on the basis of private book collections belonging to historians and bibliophiles living in the 19th and early 20th centuries, has acquired the most valuable collections of genealogical literature.

Dr. M. Afanasiev, State Historical Public Library of Russia

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Congress 5, 1924

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Plenum 4, 1924

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Congress 7, 1935

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Plenum 2, 1922

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Plenum 1, 1922

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Plenum 12, 1932

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives
Congress 2, 1920

The Comintern archives collection comprises the thousands of documents of the seven congresses of the Comintern and the thirteen plenums of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI), together with materials from the associated preparatory and working commissions. They include transcripts and minutes of meetings, with individual presentations and general discussions and debate, materials presented by the leadership and those arising from the floor, and a wealth of other documents.

This collection is also included in the Comintern Archives collection.