WILLIAM F. PINAR, Professor and Canada Research Chair,
Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, University Of British Columbia, Canada
This chapter is concerned with research on teacher professional development addressing the effectiveness of different approaches that can be used to improve the quality of teaching. The two main strands of research in teacher education are presented and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. One is concerned with the focus of teacher education on the development of specific competences and the other with the provision of a more holistic approach encouraging reflection on experiences and beliefs. It is shown that none of them is validated substantially and questions about the relation between the uses of each of these approaches in relation to quality of teaching can be raised. It also is argued that teacher professional development has to be related with teacher effectiveness research. Thus, this chapter shows how findings of research on teacher professional development can be integrated with validated theoretical models of educational effectiveness. Specifically, we discuss the extent to which the dynamic model of educational effectiveness can be used in order to help teachers improve their knowledge and skills and ultimately their effectiveness. To support the use of a theory-driven and evidence based approach to teacher professional development, empirical evidence about the importance of teacher factors taken into account for the development of this approach is presented and suggestions for research and practice in teacher professional development are provided.
Computer use has changed schools dramatically—from the delivery of instruction to our understanding of what constitutes a school. Current technological trends suggest that changes such as these will increase as technology changes, which raises the question of whether school leaders are prepared to provide the proactive leadership necessary to American education. This chapter provides an overview of present and anticipated use of technology by school leaders and a description of current and emerging pedagogical approaches associated with the preparation of school leaders in the use of technology. The chapter is organized into three key sections: Current and Anticipated Uses of Technology, Current and Emerging Practices in Preparing School Leaders, and Implications and Recommendations for the Future.