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van Loon

In his previous fascicle (XV, 12) the author showed that the native Anatolian nature goddess and her son, the hunting god, remained much more popular throughout the second millennium B.C. than one might deduce from the written sources.
The present fascicle permits comparison of the iconographies of Neo-Hittites, Uratians, Phryigans, Lydians and Lycians. Inherited beliefs manifested themselves in widely differing ways. Thus the old nature goddess Kubaba or Cybele appears in the Neo-Hittite pantheon alongside many other deities; her cult among the Phyrgians, while emphasizing motherhood, seems to have been almost monotheistic.
With much information on new finds from Sardis, Gordion and easten Turkey this volume is a comprehensive survey of the religious iconography of Anatolia on the eve of its absorption into the Hellenic world.



The present book discusses the eastern part of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, which was founded around the middle of the sixth century B.C. by Cyrus the Great. Within twenty years the empire stretched from the Aegean coast in the west, to the Kâbul valley in the east. How did the Persians manage to conquer such a vast area within such a short time? And how did they manage to preserve their empire for two hundred years before being defeated by the military genius of Alexander of Macedon?
The answer to the above questions is sought in the chaotic years that preceded the rise of the Achaemenids. On the basis of geographical and general historical information, the Persian Achaemenid texts and reliefs, classical sources and archaeological material, this study draws attention to the nomads from the Central Asian steppes and deserts who throughout history have played a major role in the developments that took place on the Iranian Plateau and beyond.

Letters in the British Museum

Transliterated and Translated, Part 2


van Soldt

This book is the thirteenth volume in the series Altbabylonische Briefe in Umschrift und Übersetzung, which wants to make the many — often dispersed — letters from the Old Babylonian period available in transliteration and translation. Volume 13 is the second in a short series of hitherto unpublished material in the British Museum. One more volume is planned. The letters presented in this volume come from various collections and form different groups. The most important of these groups contains 45 letters dealing with the administration in Larsa at the time of king Hammurabi. A large portion of these letters was sent by Hammurabi himself. Of the other groups of letters two are of special interest. The first one consists of just four letters which give a vivid picture of the problems around the building of a house at Sippar. The second contains letters sent either to or from the city of Kish. The senders are partly known from other texts, specifically the ones published in volume 10.
Orientalists and specialists in Assyriology as well as historians will benefit from this publication.

Ancient Building in Cyprus (2 vols)

Part 1: Text Part 2: Illustrations


G.R.H. Wright

The wealth of excavation in Cyprus conducted across a period of nearly a century and a half has revealed much evidence of ancient building of all functional categories. Whereas the earlier excavation concerned mainly funerary and religious contexts, more recent work has endeavoured to clarify the whole range of building in Cyprus. This picture extends over a vast range of time (ca. 10,000 years) since Cyprus is probably the place where the earliest substantial building known, the Neolithic round house style is better presented than anywhere else in the world. Certainly it was immeasurably longer lived in Cyprus than in any other region of the ancient world. This longevity of tradition became a proverbial aspect of the Cypriote character. It is the aim of this book to set forth and document this building tradition which hitherto has received no detailed exposition.
After preliminary geographical and historical introductions the ancient building of Cyprus has been surveyed and analysed from the following view-points: its historical development; its design; its construction and its foreign connections. Because of the extensive and detailed coverage every effort has been made to facilitate the use of the book equally as a treatise and as a work of instant reference - e.g. by way of introductory précis, list of general references, running titles to pages and marginal rubrics. The book is also virtually a double treatment of the subject since a separate volume contains specially drawn illustrations arranged with captions on the facing pages which themselves constitute an incisive coverage of the subject matter.
The book will fill several gaps in the library shelves at one and the same time: architectural history that presents all the archaeological evidence.

The Fall of Samaria

An Historical and Archaeological Study


Bob Prof. Dr. Becking

The fall of Samaria is narrated in 2 Kings 17. The cuneiform inscriptions dealing with this event are prima facie contradictory: the conquest is ascribed to both Shalmaneser V and Sargon II. The surmise of H. Tadmor that Samaria was conquered twice is investigated. At the same time the events are interpreted in their socio-historical framework.
Tadmor's assumption cannot be falsified, although his theory should be modified as regards the date of the first conquest: 723 B.C.E. The fall of Samaria can be interpreted as an inevitable result of the expansion of the Assyrian Empire in combination with internal struggles in Israel. Evidence of deportation reveals that deportees were treated as normal citizens.
Thorough discussion of the sources and their interpretation is a feature of this book.


Edited by J. van Dijk

In the autumn of 1997, following his sixty-fifth birthday Prof. Dr Herman te Velde retired from the chair of Egyptology at the University of Groningen. On this occasion he was presented with a volume of Egyptological studies in his honour to which colleagues and friends from all over the world contributed. Although the emphasis is on the relition of Ancient Egypt, the book covers a wide range of subjects including history and archaeology, philology and linguistics.

Hundred-Gated Thebes

Acts of a Symposium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period


P.W. Pestman and Vleeming

The choachytes (or morticians) of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes provided a rich documentation linking the city of the living on one side of the Nile with the city of the dead on the other. The family archives of these choachytes deal to a large part with their professional role in serving the dead entrusted to their care, but they are also virtually our only source of information about the city of Thebes, whose physical remains were ruthlessly obliterated in the nineteenth century. This material constitute one end of a chain which links the temple statues of Amun's servants and descriptions of their houses on the one hand with their tombs and their tomb inventories on the other, allowing us to identify individual choachytes from their papers. The papyrological finds can thus provide an exact dating for objects that might otherwise be only dated to within several centuries, while the objects themselves and the tomb architecture provide a factual dimension to historical and legal documents which might otherwise remain flat and arid.
It was in order to draw attention to the richness of all the constituent parts of this documentation that a number of scholars were invited to present their views on Graeco-Roman Thebes at a colloqium held from 9 to 11 September 1992 in Leiden, the Netherlands. The survey papers and communications presented at this colloqium are published here.

The Present State of Old Testament Studies in the Low Countries

A Collection of Old Testament Studies Published on the Occasion of the Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap


Edited by Klaas Spronk

In The Present State of Old Testament Studies in the Low Countries fifteen leading scholars from Belgium and the Netherlands give an overview of their work. This collection celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Oudtestamentisch Werkgezelschap brings together the results of high quality research on many fields, from computer-assisted analysis to biblical theology, from the archaeology of Palestine to early rabbinic exegesis, from logotechnical analysis to delimitation criticism. It shows that Old Testament research in Belgium and the Netherlands is multifaceted and innovative.

Ostraka Varia

Tax Receipts and Legal Documents on Demotic, Greek, and Greek-Demotic Ostraka, Chiefly of the Early Ptolemaic Period, from Various Collections (P. L. Bat. 26)



A large majority of the 65 ostraka published in this volume come from Egypt in the Third Century B.C. Some thirty are from Elephantine; these comprise a number of Greek and Greek-demotic receipts. Not unimportant new texts from Hermonthis and Thebes (among others, a fine example of a temple oath) add notably to the diversity of the volume. Although of course tax receipts predominate, these are present in a rich variety, and their commentaries add much to our knowledge of fiscal matters in this period.
As a nouveauté the Greek and demotic texts are published on exactly the same footing, and a constant effort is made to merge the separate worlds of Greek and demotic papyrology.
Hand-facsimiles facilitate the consultation of the individual texts; the whole is rounded off by photographic plates showing all texts in full.