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Jeffrey E. Cole

Abstract

This article examines Mazara del Vallo as a border city. As port to the Mediterranean’s largest fishing fleet, the city figures in an ongoing dispute with neighbouring Tunisia over fishing rights. Accelerating European integration has redefined Sicily’s southern shore as a European border. And Tunisian immigrants now make up five percent of the city’s population. In the 1970s, union anger, political mobilisations, and popular antipathy all worked to stamp Tunisians as undesirable and unwelcome. By the late 1990s, the lot of Tunisians in Mazara had improved with stable employment and family formation. While integrated economically, Tunisians remain socially and symbolically excluded. The actions and orientations of Sicilians, Tunisians, and their respective states perpetuate these multiple divisions. This study shows how the movement of people can involve states and their respective populations in the creation of complex divisions and interactions, in ways which can activate borders. The remarkable volume of migration in contemporary Sicily, southern Europe, and beyond makes the study of borders timely and challenging.

The Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany

Modern Post-Communism or Nostalgic Populism?

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Edited by Peter Barker

The Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany, which includes the papers from the first conference on the PDS in Britain, brings together a range of scholars and politicians from Germany, Britain, France and the USA. It assesses the present position of the party within the German political system shortly before the second ‘Superwahljahr' in Germany. It also examines its relations with other post-communist parties in Europe and evaluates the state of its relations with the other political parties competing for the left-of-centre vote in the new Länder. Above all the volume is concerned with the question as to whether the PDS, as the successor party to the former ruling communist party in East Germany, represents a modern form of socialism or is merely a populist reaction to the particular concerns of eastern Germans after unification. The volume will be of particular interest to students and scholars of German and politics who are concerned with developments in Germany and Europe after the collapse of communism. There are twelve contributions to the volume, six in German and six in English.

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Katy Hayward

Abstract

The arguments for European integration put forward by successive Irish governments contain the conceit that Ireland’s EU membership has been of benefit not only to Ireland but also to ‘Europe’ (as both place and project). The political speeches analysed in this chapter demonstrate the complementary nature of the themes of ‘Europeanisation’ and ‘Hibernicisation’ in Irish official discourse. Although the meaning and interpretation of Europeanisation has changed over the course of Ireland’s European Union membership, it has remained vital to Irish political actors that this relationship is presented very much as a ‘two way’ one, with Ireland making an important practical and idealised contribution to the EU. The chapter concludes with an assessment of the viability of such discourses in the light of growing public wariness (and perhaps weariness) of them in a changing EUIrish context.

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Brigitta Busch

Abstract

State borders and linguistic borders rarely coincide, and often minorities are ascribed a ‘bridging’ function in cross-border co-operation. However, whether or not they can fulfill such ideal expectations depends not only on bilateral relations between states but also on wider geopolitical constellations. Narratives about a common past and myths related to the foundation of national states play an important role in the construction of national identities, and language often serves as a key marker of identity. Although such narratives and myths are extremely persistent, transformations occur over time, and especially in periods of major geopolitical change. This article presents a case study of such transformations in the border region between Austria and Slovenia. It traces and analyses myths and narratives which have been constitutive of national identities in the two states and which have shaped perceptions of the ‘self’ and the ‘other’, and particularly attitudes towards the Slovene minority in Austria. It focuses on moments of transformation linked to geopolitical changes at the end of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, in the World War II period, and after the fall of the Iron Curtain. It provides a diachronic perspective necessary for understanding present shifts arising from the enlargement of the European Union. The article concludes that the Slovene minority will only fulfill a ‘bridging’ function if diversity within the European project is conceived in an open and inclusive way.

Naoko Shimazu

say, there were a myriad of others, be they delegates, journalists, or local townspeople, who were present at the conference either officially or unofficially. In this complex multi-layered conference space, “sociability” worked like a social glue that brought people together and generated a semblance

Edited by Katie Barclay, Andrew Lynch and Giovanni Tarantino

EHCS is dedicated to understanding the emotions as culturally and temporally-situated phenomena, and to exploring the role of emotion in shaping human experience and action by individuals, groups, societies and cultures.

EHCS welcomes theoretically-informed work from a range of historical, cultural and social domains. The journal aims to illuminate (1) the ways emotion is conceptualized and understood in different temporal or cultural settings, from antiquity to the present, and across the globe; (2) the impact of emotion on human action and in processes of change; and (3) the influence of emotional legacies from the past on current social, cultural and political practices.

EHCS is interested in multidisciplinary approaches (both qualitative and quantitative), from history, art, literature, languages, music, politics, sociology, cognitive sciences, cultural studies, environmental humanities, religious studies, linguistics, philosophy, psychology, and related disciplines. The journal also invites papers that interrogate the methodological and critical problems of exploring emotions in historical, cultural and social contexts, and the relation between past and present in the study of feelings, passions, sentiments, emotions and affects. Finally, Emotions also accepts theoretically-informed and reflective scholarship that explores how scholars access, uncover, construct and engage with emotions in their own scholarly practice.

Following an initial review process by the editors, EHCS sends acceptable submissions to two expert independent readers outside the author’s home institution, employing a double-blind review procedure.

EHCS is published on behalf of the Society for the History of Emotions.

Germany and Eastern Europe

Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences

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Edited by Keith Bullivant, Geoffrey Giles and Walter Pape

The opening up, and subsequent tearing down, of the Berlin Wall in 1989 effectively ended a historically unique period for Europe that had drastically changed its face over a period of fifty years and redefined, in all sorts of ways, what was meant by East and West. For Germany in particular this radical change meant much more than unification of the divided country, although initially this process seemed to consume all of the country's energies and emotions. While the period of the Cold War saw the emergence of a Federal Republic distinctly Western in orientation, the coming down of the Iron Curtain meant that Germany's relationship with its traditional neighbours to the East and the South-East, which had been essentially frozen or redefined in different ways for the two German states by the Cold War, had to be rediscovered. This volume, which brings together scholars in German Studies from the United States, Germany and other European countries, examines the history of the relationship between Germany and Eastern Europe and the opportunities presented by the changes of the 1990's, drawing particular attention to the interaction between the willingness of German and its Eastern neighbours to work for political and economic inte-gration, on the one hand, and the cultural and social problems that stem from old prejudices and unresolved disputes left over from the Second World War, on the other.

Festivalising!

Theatrical Events, Politics and Culture

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Edited by Temple Hauptfleisch, Shulamith Lev-Aladgem, Jacqueline Martin, Willmar Sauter and Henri Schoenmakers

Throughout the world festivals are growing – in numbers, in size, in significance – and serve as spaces where aesthetic encounters, religious and political celebrations, economic investments and public entertainment can take place. In this sense, festivals are theatrical events.
This volume contains discussions of 14 diverse festival events from five continents across the globe, written by members of the IFTR/FIRT Working Group on the Theatrical Event, the same group that has produced the ground-breaking study Theatrical Events – Borders Dynamics Frames in 2004 (also published by Rodopi). The events discussed here range from traditional carnivals and festivals to more controversial theatre, dance and opera festivals, children’s festivals and community events, as well as saints’ and workers’ festivities. All of these constitute part of the local playing cultures and take on significant political roles, nationally and regionally.
The authors explore and extend the theoretical frames of reference for any contemporary discussion of theatrical events and festivals, in order to provide a new and fresh perspective on past and present festival culture across the globe.

Soldiers of Memory

World War II and Its Aftermath in Estonian Post-Soviet Life Stories

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Edited by Ene Kõresaar

Soldiers of Memory explores the complexities and ambiguities of World War II experience from the Estonian veterans’ point of view. Since the end of World War II, contesting veteran cultures have developed on the basis of different war experiences and search for recognition in the public arena of history. The book reflects on this process by combining witness accounts with their critical analysis from the aspect of post-Soviet remembrance culture and politics.
The first part of the book examines the persistent remembrance of World War II. Eight life stories of Estonian men are presented, revealing different war trajectories: mobilised between 1941 and 1944, the narrators served in the Red Army and its work battalions, fought against the Soviet Union in the Finnish Army, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe, the German political police force and Wehrmacht, deserted from the Red Army, were held in German and Soviet prison and repatriation camps.
The second part of the book offers a critical analysis of the stories from a multidisciplinary point of view: what were the possible life trajectories for an Estonian soldier under Soviet and German occupations in the 1940s? How did the soldiers cope with the extreme conditions of the Soviet rear? How are the veterans’ memories situated in terms of different memory regimes and what is their position in the post-Soviet Estonian society? What role does ethnic and generational identity play in the formation of veterans’ war remembrance? How do individuals cope with war trauma and guilt in life stories?
Offering a wide range of empirical material and its critical analysis, Soldiers of Memory will be important for military, oral and cultural historians, sociologists, cultural psychologists, and anybody with an interest in the history of World War II, post/communism, and cultural construction of memory in contemporary Eastern European societies.