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Readings of the Particular

The Postcolonial in the Postnational

Series:

Edited by Anne Holden Rønning and Lene M. Johannessen

The present collection aims at throwing light on transculturality and the identities and masks that people put on, in writing as much as in life, in an age of global levelling and the struggle for a particular place in a postcolonial world. Topics covered include: North African identity in France; cultural citizenship and the Asian diaspora; novels of beur self-identity by Maghrebi immigrants in France; Scottish fiction, Britain and Empire; memory, amnesia, and the re-invention of the past in South Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere; borders, necrophilia and history in Southern African fiction; encodings of female control; spectating in black documentary cinema; theatre, performance, and the Western presence in Africa; masks, history, transtextuality, and other aspects of Irish poetry and drama; the masking and unmasking of identity in the African-American novel; violence and Titus Andronicus in black Nova Scotian poetry; notions of the national and of indigeneity in contemporary Canadian drama; Native Canadians, space, and the city. Authors and artists treated include: William Boyd; André Brink; George Elliott Clarke; David Dabydeen; Ralph Ellison; Bessie Head; Seamus Heaney; Tomson Highway; Isaac Julien; Daniel David Moses; Paul Muldoon; Albert Murray; Jean Rhys; Sir Walter Scott; Robert Louis Stevenson; Richard Wright; and W.B. Yeats.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 2: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1825-1839

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 1: Index to the Public Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1814-1849

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Social History Source Collections

The present collection consists of 72 inventories.

Series:

Edited by Freda Chapple and Chiel Kattenbelt

Intermediality: the incorporation of digital technology into theatre practice, and the presence of film, television and digital media in contemporary theatre is a significant feature of twentieth-century performance. Presented here for the first time is a major collection of essays, written by the Theatre and Intermediality Research Group of the International Federation for Theatre Research, which assesses intermediality in theatre and performance. The book draws on the history of ideas to present a concept of intermediality as an integration of thoughts and medial processes, and it locates intermediality at the inter-sections situated in-between the performers, the observers and the confluence of media, medial spaces and art forms involved in performance at a particular moment in time. Referencing examples from contemporary theatre, cinema, television, opera, dance and puppet theatre, the book puts forward a thesis that the intermedial is a space where the boundaries soften and we are in-between and within a mixing of space, media and realities, with theatre providing the staging space for intermediality. The book places theatre and performance at the heart of the ‘new media’ debate and will be of keen interest to students, with clear relevance to undergraduates and post-graduates in Theatre Studies and Film and Media Studies, as well as the theatre research community.

Series:

Edited by Tom Hubbard and R.D.S. Jack

If there is ocht in Scotland that’s worth ha’en / There is nae distance to which it’s unattached – Hugh MacDiarmid A realignment of Scottish literary studies is long overdue. The present volume counters the relative neglect of comparative literature in Scotland by exploring the fortunes of Scottish writing in mainland Europe, and, conversely, the engagement of Scottish literary intellectuals with European texts. Most of the contributions draw on the online Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation. Together they demonstrate the richness of the creative dialogue, not only between writers, but also between musicians and visual artists when they turn their attention to literature. The contributors to this volume cover most of Europe, including the German-speaking countries, Scandinavia, France, Catalonia, Portugal, Italy, the Balkans, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Russia. All Scotland's major literary languages – Gaelic, Scots, English and Latin – are featured in a continent-wide labyrinth that will repay further exploration.

The Faces of Freedom

The Manumission and Emancipation of Slaves in Old World and New World Slavery

Series:

Edited by Marc Kleijwegt

This volume is concerned with examining the histories of freed slaves in a variety of slave societies in the ancient and modern world, ranging from ancient Rome to the southern states of the US, the Caribbean, and Brazil to Africa in the aftermath of emancipation in the twentieth century. The aim of this work is to present a comparative forum for the study of freedpeople. By identifying what is separate and what is universal about freedpeople it hopes to add to a better understanding of the role and impact of manumission and emancipation in different slave societies.

Contributors include: Valentina Arena, Steeve Buckridge, Mariana Dantas, Marc Kleijwegt, Martin Klein, Rita Reynolds, Chandima Wickramasinghe, Swithin Wilmot, and Nigel Worden.

Series:

Christopher Lloyd

Fascination with creatures that challenge boundaries between humans and other species long predates Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Narratives have evolved from the fabulous to the more scientifically grounded, and tend to follow either the regressive or relativistic model, established respectively by Swift and Voltaire: men as apes, debased, stinking brutes; or apes as men, as potential rivals and substitutes. My aim here is to sample and compare a select corpus of fictional texts in French and English ranging from the late nineteenth century to the present, which deal with monstrosity or the incursion into the human domain of threatening, rival primate species, in the context of human evolution, whether individual, social or biological. Stevenson, Zola, Maupassant and Hugo all present variations of the self dispossessed by some monstrous other, whether through physical deformity caused by a malicious external agent, or more subtly through some internal disturbance of ontological equilibrium. This unleashes creatures that devour their human host, but at the cost of their own extinction. H. G. Wells and Octave Mirbeau, on the other hand, adopt the perspective of the external observer who poses as a scientific witness of attempts to modify human and animal evolution. In conclusion, I discuss two twentieth-century novels which rewrite the whole course of primate evolution, Boulle’s La Planète des singes (1963) and Self’s Great Apes (1997).

A Survey of Voluntaristics

Research on the Growth of the Global, Interdisciplinary, Socio-behavioral Science Field and Emergent Inter-discipline

Series:

David Horton Smith

This article provides a survey of the growth of research on Nonprofit Sector and Voluntary Action Research, now termed simply voluntaristics. The author founded the organized, global, interdisciplinary, socio-behavioral science field of voluntaristics in 1971, with his formation and establishment of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA; www.arnova.org). Both ARNOVA, and its interdisciplinary, academic journal, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly (NVSQ), have served as initial models for the global diffusion of this interdisciplinary field, now present in all inhabited continents and with upwards of 20,000 academic participants in at least 130 nations and territories, and likely more.
Voluntaristics, after more than 40 years of growth, now qualifies as a new, global, integrative, academic discipline in the socio-behavioral sciences and related social professions, not just as one of many interdisciplinary fields of research, according to six defining criteria for a discipline. However, the author prefers to label voluntaristics as an inter-discipline, since its hallmark is the interdisciplinary study of all, voluntary nonprofit sector (VNPS) phenomena.

The Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany

Modern Post-Communism or Nostalgic Populism?

Series:

Edited by Peter Barker

The Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany, which includes the papers from the first conference on the PDS in Britain, brings together a range of scholars and politicians from Germany, Britain, France and the USA. It assesses the present position of the party within the German political system shortly before the second ‘Superwahljahr' in Germany. It also examines its relations with other post-communist parties in Europe and evaluates the state of its relations with the other political parties competing for the left-of-centre vote in the new Länder. Above all the volume is concerned with the question as to whether the PDS, as the successor party to the former ruling communist party in East Germany, represents a modern form of socialism or is merely a populist reaction to the particular concerns of eastern Germans after unification. The volume will be of particular interest to students and scholars of German and politics who are concerned with developments in Germany and Europe after the collapse of communism. There are twelve contributions to the volume, six in German and six in English.