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David Horton Smith

tribes (see Lowie, 1970; Webster, 1908). Initially, religious occupational specialists were shamans, though the tribal chief could also have a special role as head of religious matters and rituals. For most of human existence, religion was not really a distinct part of life nor a special entity, such


Lili Wang

organizations also help preserve culture and ethnic identity as the physical characteristics of ethnic religious institutions and the religious rituals practiced there symbolize ethnic culture and identity (Kurien, 2007; Min & Jang, 2015; Williams, 1988; Yang, 1999). 5 Hometown Associations and Diaspora