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Richard North

An evolution of attitudes towards pre-Christian custom in , North-West Europe, as shown in early .medieval word-fields and texts in Old English and Old Icelandic literature, is represented in six variously focussed studies. The first three chapters, Pagan Words, form a network of research on pre-Christian concepts of mind and soul as they survived, still active, in Christianized heroic poetry. This was part of. the heathen matrix through which the first expressions of Christianity in Old English and Icelandic literature were possible. The second half of this book, Christian Meanings, shows .how the same Christian literature produced reinterpretations of paganism. The literary range stretches from the earliest epic formulae to the polished genealogical novels of thirteenth-century Iceland- An ancient tradition of augury is invoked by the poet of The Seafarer to illustrate a believer's passage to heaven. In Havamal, an artificially pagan creed of ritual teaching and responses is compiled in Iceland as an antiquarian entertainment, perhaps on a Christian model. The last chapter shows a variety of Christian interpretations of, paganism in four sagas of Icelanders from the early to late thirteenth century. Overall where paganism was concerned, the tendency was first to cast off a way of life, then later, when that life was lost forever, to reinvent it for the imagination.

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Kendra Willson

. 58) the commedia character types stem from caricature, “ Noh masks symbolise the essential traits of a role” (p. 61), reflecting a Japanese “emphasis on ritual, ceremony, symbolism, economy and discipline” (p. 59). Carlo Boso notes that both Noh and commedia dell’arte have a formalised

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Robert A. Saunders

Perkūnas/Pērkons, Laima and Dievas/Dieva, among others. In post-Soviet Latvia and Lithuania, the resurgence of pre-Christian practice is supportive of other forms of national revival (including singing and tourism clubs), thus situating pagan belief as an overt expression of national identity. Rituals and

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Katja Schulz

” (Sumner, 1907, p. 12). The demarcation between the we-group and the other-group is constructed and maintained through “symbolic markers (boundaries) such as narratives, creeds, rituals, and social practices” (cf. MacCallion, 2007 ). 6 All translations in this chapter are my own, unless otherwise

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Han Nijdam and Otto S. Knottnerus

Frisians in the last decade of the seventh century. In the story of the failed baptism (Chapter 9; see Figure 5.1 ), Wulfram has persuaded Redbad to be baptised. Before undergoing the ritual, Redbad asks Wulfram one final question: will he see his ancestors and the Frisian kings before him again in the

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Ann-Marie Long

group of scholars have been primarily interested in studying the ‘rituals of remembering’ or ‘arts of memory’: the classical intellectual traditions of memoria , mnemonics and memorization, 59 and others concerned with studying the contents of memory as preserved in constructions of the past or

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Marika Mägi

had been shot into the sides of the ship, which Peets has chosen to interpret as a sign of a battle. 55 An alternative interpretation can be that the arrows were shot in the course of some funeral ritual. The use of arrow-shooting in local religious rites was confirmed by excavation in 2014 at

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Marika Mägi

about one third of Viking Age villages could have possessed an archaeologically traceable burial ground. The society itself was hierarchical, but, as Pihlman expressed it, the top of the hierarchical structure was broad. These were select households which exercised power, both in political and ritual

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Marika Mägi

like ritual damage of grave goods or sooty layers in graves, it is however much more doubtful evidence, as such features have been characteristically found in much broader areas. 98 Occasionally one can find articles in which artefacts referred to as “Scandinavian” in Russia represent common types in

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Marie Nedregotten Sørbø

marriage ritual, or Biblical language (183). Alfsen chooses old-fashioned phrases also where Austen is completely modern. Had she wanted to be contemporary, Alfsen would have used the modern word for “girl” ( jente ) rather than the old style one ( pike ). The earlier translators also used pike , since it