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John Granger Cook

crucifixion in Cumae during a gladiatorial spectacle; the lex Puteolana which regulated both the crucifixion at private expense of slaves and public crucifixions in that town; 2 the lex Cumana which probably, among other things, regulated crucifixion there; and a graffito in a taberna of Puteoli that

Robyn J. Whitaker

, and death the inevitable conclusion to a long drama played out before the eyes of the public.
 None of these spectacles of death would be spectacles (θεωρίαι) at all without a viewing public. To remind ourselves of the obvious, a spectacle requires spectators. Therefore, crucifixions were conducted on

Todd Penner and Caroline Vander Stichele

negotiated by a culture of “mere representation,” in which spectacle becomes the primary mode of social communication, 2 does not negate that the pur- ported product delivered and the desire itself both strive for precisely such unmediated experiences. As Jean Baudrillard ob- serves, this “hysteria” of our

Kimberly Stratton

public disciplinary displays and the implications that imagining eschatological justice as a blood spectacle has for theological conceptions of divine surveillance and control. Keywords Roman arena, divine justice, final judgment, vengeance, violence, eschatology, surveil- lance, punishment 1) I presented

Schwartz, Daniel R.

, that Antiochus was not the most balanced individual. Be that as it may, Antiochus's attention was not riveted by his Judaean affairs, although the Jewish sources understandably give great prominence to them. After a magnificent military spectacle in Daphne in 166 bce, he set off for a new eastern

Laura S. Lieber

, 1.2 Late Antiquity was an age of spectacle. It was a time of chariot races and pantomime shows, of athletic competitions and celebratory triumphs, of public festivals and religious pageantry. Theatres, amphitheatres, and hippodromes dotted civic spaces in towns large and small; diverse communities

Biblical Interpretation 320–341
 Brian Charles DiPalma
 Seeing Rape and Robbery: ἁρπαγμαός and the Philippians Christ Hymn (Phil. 2:5-11) 342–363
 Katherine A. Shaner
 Picturing Saul’s Vision on the Road to Damascus: A Question of Authority 364–398
 Deborah Thompson Prince
 A Failed Spectacle: The Role

Peter Marshall

advantage and subjecting him to humiliation as a result. There can be no doubt that the triumph is used here as a metaphor of shame. It is also worth noting that the ideas of display, making a spectacle of, holding up to riducule and of shame are implicit in this form of the metaphor. In Latin literature

(i.e., in a Mediterranean climate) in the months of January or February-as is well known, the festival of the Lenaea was celebrated in Athens in the open air around January, when an audience witnessed a theatrical spectacle (see Arthur Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens2 (Oxford

J. Albert Harrill

Passage, Household, and Spectacle The toga virilis consisted of a series of progressive rituals marking a boy’s coming of age (or “social puberty”) in the Roman household and society, decided by the father but often celebrated between the ages of Ž fteen and sixteen. 13 The rite had a familial dedication