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Edited by Lilian del Castillo


Edited by Efthymios D. Papastavridis and Kinderley N. Trapp

With the increasing sophistication of transnational criminal organization, coupled with globalization and its heavy dependence on maritime transport, the suppression of criminality at sea has again become a priority on the international community’s agenda. The theme at the heart of this volume is therefore Crimes at Sea — an issue of both great practical importance and academic interest. This work is the fruit of the 2012 session of the Hague Academy Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations — collectively, the fourteen chapters in this volume underscore the common challenges in international co-operation at the legal level with respect to crimes at sea and identify a number of the potential strengths and shortcomings of the applicable international law. There is a wide breadth of subject matters addressed in this volume, some focusing on particular crimes at sea, others on the general international legal framework within which responses to criminality at sea operate. Throughout the volume, there is a common theme of regime interaction — exploring the limits and efficiencies resulting from the overlapping applicability of human rights law, international criminal law, the law of State responsibility and the UN Charter regime. The contributions both illustrate and clarify the significant links between these legal regimes which support the fight against crimes at sea.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 35.


Edited by Marie-Claire Foblets and Nadjima Yassari

The central theme of the volume is cultural diversity, a vast subject that is highly relevant today. The particular focus here is on the many ways in which this diversity is managed within the framework of State law. The twelve contributors to this book have a special interest in how cultural traditions and their various forms of expression are handled by the law. They were all participants in the 2009 Research Programme of the Centre for Studies and Research of the Hague Academy of International Law. The breadth of the subject is reflected in the wide spectrum of perspectives from which the topic has been explored. Starting in each case from the existing State and international legal frameworks, the contributors explore how the interactions between positive law and other normative orders can be placed at the service of a legal system that is as fair as possible within a plural context. Contributors were asked to choose from two alternative approaches: either they could look at cultural diversity issues in the field of private (international) law, a fairly traditional field that is especially relevant to the legal treatment of cultural diversity ; or they could situate cultural diversity within the wider and more theoretical area of “legal pluralism”, whether on a local or regional level or at the international (United Nations) level.

Edited by Marie-Claire Foblets and Nadjma Yassari
With the contribution of:
M. Ben Lamine; N. Bialostozky; R. Colavitti; L.-M. Crăciunean; I. Gallala-Arndt; P. Kruiniger; V. Mainetti; S. Ouechtati; J. Ringelheim; B. Truffin; J. Verhellen; A. Vigorito.

Le thème au coeur de ce volume est la diversité culturelle, vaste sujet de grande actualité. L’intérêt porte ici plus particulièrement sur les manières disparates dont cette diversité est agencée dans le droit (formel) des Etats. Les douze auteurs portent tous un intérêt particulier pour la question du sort qui est réservé, en droit, aux traditions culturelles et à leurs diverses formes d’expression. L’ouvrage est le fruit des travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche de l’Académie de droit international de La Haye en 2009. Le choix des sujets abordés dans ce volume est vaste. Le point de départ de
chaque contribution toutefois est le cadre normatif existant, tant le cadre étatique que les instruments internationaux, pour ensuite explorer les diverses manières dont ceuxci se positionnent par rapport à d’autres logiques normatives perceptibles dans la société et qui tendent, chacune à sa manière, à obtenir une forme de reconnaissance de la part du droit étatique. Plusieurs pistes s’offraient aux auteurs: une première piste consistait à s’intéresser surtout aux questions de droit international privé, un domaine traditionnel du droit qui regorge d’intérêt pour la question du traitement juridique de la diversité culturelle. Une autre piste était de faire le jour sur les mécanismes de protection juridique de la diversité culturelle à travers le prisme du pluralisme juridique et de voir jouer celui-ci à divers niveaux : local, régional, national et international. Les contributions illustrent les liens signifiants existant entre l’ordre juridique d’un Etat et les multiples ordres juridiques parallèles (religieux, philosophiques, ethniques, ou autres) présents sur son territoire.

Originally published as Colloques / Workshops – Law Books of the Academy, Volume 33.

Edited by Edith Brown Weiss, John H. Jackson and Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder

The volume focuses on five cases, all of which remain cornerstone trade-environment cases of the WTO. The subject matter of these cases reflects five basic issues in the clash between trade and the environment: public health, air pollution/ozone depletion, food safety, destruction of endangered species, and biosafety. These five issues surface dramatically in international disputes over tobacco, reformulated gasoline, beef growth hormones, commercial fishing methods, and genetically modified organisms. In the second edition of this book, Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder joins the original editors to update and contextualize the five case studies in new introductions to each section. These introductions provide an overview of developments since the first edition, including subsequent related cases. The second edition also includes updated bibliographic materials. In their penetrating analyses of these cases and their vast implications, the authors take into account the entire disciplines of both trade law and environmental law, noting especially the points of friction between the multilateral instruments in each field and the developing jurisprudence of the WTO Dispute Settlement with regard to the exceptions specified in Article XX of the GATT. The articulated standpoints of all parties—governments and NGOs on both sides of the controversy—are probed for “agendas,” whether stated or unstated. No one involved in international trade or environmental activism can afford to ignore this vital publication. The information it provides (on WTO jurisprudence, on current and pending environmental initiatives, on the science behind the disputes), no less than the fresh and convincing analysis it holds forth, make it an essential tool for understanding some of the most crucial issues in international law today.


Ved Nanda and George (Rock) Pring

In the 21st century, anthropogenic (human-caused) environmental change is widespread and serious on the global, regional/transboundary, and local levels. Emphasizing the environmental, social, and human damage caused by non-sustainable development, International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21st Century, Second Revised Edition by Nanda and Pring, provides readers with an incisive and integrated approach to the political, economic, scientific, and technological realities and challenges facing international environmental law and policy today. This provocative new book offers innovative chapters on such crucial current imperatives as:
• the nature and scope of the challenge;
• first principles of international environmental law;
• environment and human rights;
• environment and the nexus of international trade, finance and debt; and
• the unfinished agenda.

Traditional subjects covered include the history of international environmental law, the law of the sea, international freshwater resources, cross-border air pollution, ozone depletion and climate change, the technology of chemicals manufacture and transport, disposal of hazardous waste, preservation ofand biodiversity, environmental impact analysis, and regulation of nuclear energy. The book also features a critical examination of the UN’s activities on the environment, starting from the 1972 Stockholm Convention on the Environment, up to and including the 2012 Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development.

With new chapters devoted to critical energy and population issues, and a new section on corporate social responsibility, International Environmental Law & Policy for the 21st Century is an essential resource for students, scholars, lawyers, public officials, corporate decision-makers, and technical consultants concerned with environmental issues.

Alexandre Kiss and Dinah Shelton

Guide to International Environmental Law addresses why and how the international system elaborates environmental obligations and monitors compliance with them. The book discusses the relationship between international obligations and national and local law, with particular reference to federal systems. It points out the influence national law has on the emergence of international law and the growing role international norms play in the development and enforcement of national and local environmental policies. It also examines the extent to which environmental protection should be and is taken into account in other regulatory frameworks, from trade law and human rights to disarmament and refugee policy.


Tony George Puthucherril

Ship recycling conserves resources, employs an unskilled workforce, and removes outdated tonnage. Operating mainly on the Indian subcontinent, this ‘primitive’ industry often results in loss of human life and pollution of the marine environment. Despite moral indignation, the international community has struggled to manage this industry and only recently completed the IMO International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships. Using the Indian experience on shipbreaking as a case study, this book assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Convention. The author argues that the Convention may not succeed because it fails to strike a balance between environmental protection, human rights, and commercial realities. The book offers recommendations for a holistic and integrated approach to a sustainable ship recycling industry.

The Environmental Element in Space Law

Assessing the Present and Charting the Future


Lotta Viikari

While decades of space ventures have led to significant technological advances, space activities have also brought increasing environmental problems. This book examines the current international legal regimes in space law and environmental law in order to ascertain their applicability and efficacy in addressing environmental threats in the space sector. The research suggests mechanisms which could improve environmental protection in the sector and strengthen the environmental element in space law. These mechanisms include a variety of norm-setting strategies used in international environmental management. Special attention is drawn to the potential of environmental impact assessment in the space sector and to dispute resolution procedures. Like other areas of human activities, the space sector should accommodate both economic interests and environmental protection in line with the principle of sustainable development