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G. Gregory Letterman

Although customs and tariffs operate from a national perspective, it is the overarching international structure of classification, valuation, etc. that is imposed upon the national schemes that provide international customs and tariffs with a comprehensible global consistency whose understanding is of great importance for those dealing in international commerce.

It is this global scheme of customs and tariffs laws and practices that the author describes so thoroughly and well. Having mapped out for the reader that global scheme, he then describes the many types of variances and exemptions from the global scheme that must be understood as well.

Basic Guide to International Customs and Tariffs provides a highly readable description of its subject and a unique global perspective not encountered in other books dealing with the same topic.



Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.

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Edited by José E. Alvarez

American Classics in International Law: International Investment Law, edited by Professor José E. Alvarez, contains a selection of the best scholarship on the subject produced by those with a connection to the United States. Since international investment law remains a subject that is not codified in a single multilateral treaty, the volume also contains selections of U.S. treaties that have influenced the over 3,400 international investment agreements (IIAs) now in existence. The collection offers a selection of significant addresses by prominent U.S. policy-makers along with a comprehensive introduction by the Editor that puts the various elements - the contributions made by U.S. academics, treaty-negotiators, and policy-makers - in a broader context.

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Ida E. Wendt

In the EU, activities of the liberal professions (legal, medical, technical and accountancy professions) are subject to self- and state regulation. Traditionally their regulatory schemes have been legitimised on the basis of the societal role liberal professions assume, dismissing EU competition law as a means of addressing restrictions in professional services markets. Reflecting on the role of professional associations in rule making processes, this book assesses the authority and democratic legitimacy of professional rules with a comprehensive rereading of the principles governing EU competition law (including Article 102 and 106(2) TFEU). As a result, this book challenges the use of a diffuse public interest concept and the dichotomy maintained in past legal writing between competition and non-economic interests in professional regulation.

Tillmann Rudolf Braun

direct rights paradigm, it is necessary to define the relationship of these rights to the law of state responsibility and, as a result, their limits (Part 4) and, finally, based on the premise of an elevation of the status of the investor to a partial subject in international law, a few possible

The Interpretation of International Investment Law

Equality, Discrimination and Minimum Standards of Treatment in Historical Context

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Todd Weiler

In The Interpretation of International Investment Law: Equality, Discrimination and Minimum Standards of Treatment in Historical Context, author Todd Weiler demonstrates how historical analysis should be adopted in the interpretation of international investment law obligations. Weiler subjects some of the most commonly held beliefs about the nature and development of international investment law to a critical re-appraisal, based upon meticulously assembled historical record. In the process, the book provides readers with a fresh perspective on some of the oldest obligations in international law.

This stimulating contribution to the discourse on interpretation of international investment law standards sheds new light on the formation of such primary obligations as fair and equitable treatment, protection and security and the customary international law minimum standard of treatment for aliens. Additionally, a thought-provoking historical analysis explains why a one-size-fits-all approach to obligations found in both trade and investment treaties, such as MFN treatment and national treatment, must be rejected. With a keen attention to detail, The Interpretation of International Investment Law: Equality, Discrimination and Minimum Standards of Treatment in Historical Context reveals the dynamic relationship between historical analysis, critical theory and the construction of both customary and treaty norms in international investment law.