Within the pluralistic character of society and the modern school, students are seeking a different kind of understanding about the relationship between their religious traditions and life. This affects Islamic religious education in many aspects, including its aims, its programs, and approach to teaching in the classroom. Recently, religious education has not been an activity of faith transfer but a matter of passing on new perspectives into the context in which the individual stands. Therefore, the teachers should strive to teach their students to live with the demands of plurality and modernity present in their world today. This paper will advance some insights on the methodological problem of communicating the Qur’anic text by introducing a communicative model of teaching in teacher training. The communicative model of teaching is a kind of reflection on the text of the Qur’an within the subject in its historical and contemporary contexts. It starts from the question: What is textual and what is contextual? This paper aims to present a communicative model of teaching, taking the Qur’anic concept of “people of the book” as an example.
This paper traces the development of Christian education in Lebanon and its various influences on society. Christian education is closely related to socio-political circumstances in this country and is both a reflection of its many phases and a reaction to it. Due to the Ottoman Empire’s millet system, religious education started with and continued as the responsibility of the separate religious communities. Since the late eighteenth century, Western Jesuit and later Anglo-American Protestant missions added more layers and complexities to Christian education. Despite all their merits and the richness they brought, the various missions unknowingly loaded the subject of Christian education with spiritual, cultural, and political stress. In turn, the political developments of the twentieth century culminating in the long civil war, splintered the religious communities and affected their way of teaching religion. Post-war Lebanon still carries within it the legacies of the Ottoman Empire, the fingerprint of Western missionaries, the prejudices of Arab nationalism, and the bitter memories of a war tainted with religious differences.