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Nadine Heymann

In this chapter, I give a brief insight into my PhD thesis about Visual Kei in Germany. The translocal subculture Visual Kei has its roots in Japan and is designated by a specific aesthetical practice and habitus. I ask which codes, which (body)routines (that is, which practices) the protagonists in Visual Kei incorporate to become intelligible subjects. Do or can the protagonists in their everyday practice make an emancipative claim and disrupt a heteronormative gender regime? I would argue that the critique in Visual Kei is one that is deeply inscribed in its practices - a practical critique. It is less a practice of resistance. I would rather describe it as a fractious practice against heteronormative images of bodies and gender.


Cristóbal Lozano and Amaya Mendikoetxea


The purpose of this article is to characterise the production of postverbal subjects in two ICLE subcorpora (Italian and Spanish). The question has been dealt with before in the literature with emphasis on the production of ngrammatical inversion structures in L2 English of speakers from a variety of L1s, but in quite a scattered, unsystematic and rather intuitive fashion. Our approach seeks to identify the conditions under which learners produce inverted subjects. Based on previous research findings and our review of the theoretical literature, we hypothesise that for Spanish and Italian learners of L2 English, there is a tendency for subject inversion to occur when: the verb is unaccusative (H1), the subject is long or “heavy” (H2), and the subject is new (or relatively new) information or “focus” (H3). While H1 has found confirmation in the L2 literature, H2 and H3 have, to our knowledge, been untested and the facts they describe gone unnoticed in previous research. Our results show that the three conditions are met in the writing of Spanish and Italian L2 speakers of English, despite errors in the syntactic encoding of the structures concerned. Thus, a full account of the production of inverted subjects in L2 English must look at properties which operate at (i) the lexicon-syntax interface, (ii) the syntaxphonology interface, and (iii) the syntax-discourse interface.

Subjects Barbarian, Monstrous, and Wild

Encounters in the Arts and Contemporary Politics


Edited by Maria Boletsi and Tyler Sage

Subjects Barbarian, Monstrous, and Wild responds to a contemporary political climate in which historically invested figures of otherness—barbarians, savages, monsters—have become common discursive currency. Through questionable historical comparisons, politicians and journalists evoke barbaric or primitive forces threatening civilization in order to exacerbate the fear of others, diagnose civilizational decline, or feed nostalgic restorative projects. These evocations often demand that forms of oppression, discrimination, and violence be continued or renewed.
In this context, the collected essays explore the dispossessing effects of these figures but also their capacities for reimagining subjectivity, agency, and resistance to contemporary forms of power. Emphasizing intersections of the aesthetic and the political, these essays read canonical works alongside contemporary literature, film, art, music, and protest cultures. They interrogate the violent histories but also the subversive potentials of figures barbarous, monstrous, or wild, while illustrating the risks in affirmative resignifications or new mobilizations.

Contributors: Sophie van den Bergh, Maria Boletsi, Siebe Bluijs, Giulia Champion, Cui Chen, Tom Curran, Andries Hiskes, Tyler Sage, Cansu Soyupak, Ruby de Vos, Mareen Will

Outsider Biographies

Savage, de Sade, Wainewright, Ned Kelly, Billy the Kid, Rimbaud and Genet: Base Crime and High Art in Biography and Bio-Fiction, 1744-2000


Ian H. Magedera

Concerning itself with biography and bio-fiction written in English and in French and also taking in American and Australian subjects, Outsider Biographies focuses on writers who have a criminal record and on notorious criminals who authors of bio-fiction consider as writers. It pursues an understanding of the formal effects of life-writers’ struggles between championing their subjects and a deep ambivalence towards their subjects’ crimes. The book analyses the challenge that these literary outsiders present to the mainstream French- and English-language traditions where many biographers assign merit to productive lives well lived. The book’s approach illuminates both differences in those traditions from the mid-eighteenth, to the twenty-first century and a convergence between them, evident in the experimental-cum-fictional devices in recent English-language biography. Outsider Biographies advances wide-ranging new interpretations of the biographical writing on each of its seven subjects, but does so in a way that invites the reader picking up the book out of a passion for just one of those subjects, to follow the thread onto another and yet another.


Edited by Gaëtanelle Gilquin, Szilvia Papp and María Belén Díez-Bedmar

The papers brought together in this volume explore, through corpus data, the link between contrastive and interlanguage analysis. Learner corpora are approached from a contrastive perspective, by comparing them with native corpora or corpus data produced by learners from other mother tongue backgrounds, or by combining them with contrastive data from multilingual (translation or comparable) corpora. The integration of these two frameworks, contrastive and learner corpus research, makes it possible to highlight crucial aspects of learner production, such as features of non-nativeness (errors, over- and underuse, unidiomatic expressions), including universal features of interlanguage, or more general issues like the question of transfer. The ten papers of this volume cover topics ranging from methodology to syntax (e.g. adverb placement, postverbal subjects), through lexis (collocations) and discourse (e.g. information packaging, thematic choice). The languages examined include English, Chinese, Dutch, French and Spanish. The book will be of interest to a wide array of readers, especially researchers in second language acquisition and contrastive linguistics, but also professionals working in foreign language teaching, such as language teachers, materials writers and language testers.


Transformations of the Body and the Influence of Ovid’s Metamorphoses on Germanic Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries


David Gallagher

The origins of selected instances of metamorphosis in Germanic literature are traced from their roots in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, grouped roughly on an ‘ascending evolutionary scale’ (invertebrates, birds, animals, and mermaids). Whilst a broad range of mythological, legendary, fairytale and folktale traditions have played an appreciable part, Ovid’s Metamorphoses is still an important comparative analysis and reference point for nineteenth- and twentieth-century German-language narratives of transformations. Metamorphosis is most often used as an index of crisis: an existential crisis of the subject or a crisis in a society’s moral, social or cultural values. Specifically selected texts for analysis include Jeremias Gotthelf’s Die schwarze Spinne (1842) with the terrifying metamorphoses of Christine into a black spider, the metamorphosis of Gregor Samsa in Kafka’s Die Verwandlung (1915), ambiguous metamorphoses in E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Der goldne Topf (1814), Hermann Hesse’s Piktors Verwandlungen (1925), Der Steppenwolf (1927) and Christoph Ransmayr’s Die letzte Welt (1988). Other mythical metamorphoses are examined in texts by Bachmann, Fouqué, Fontane, Goethe, Nietzsche, Nelly Sachs, Thomas Mann and Wagner, and these and many others confirm that metamorphosis is used historically, scientifically, for religious purposes; to highlight identity, sexuality, a dream state, or for metaphoric, metonymic or allegorical reasons.


Patrick Bridgwater

The first full-length study of the main German contributors to the Gothic canon, to each of whom a chapter is devoted, The German Gothic Novel in Anglo-German Perspective is an original historical and comparative study that goes well beyond the necessary review of the evidence to include much new material, many new insights and pieces of analysis, and some fundamental changes of perspective. The book aims to put the record straight in bibliographical and literary historical terms, and to act as a reference guide to facilitate future research, so that anyone working on the German Gothic novel or on Anglo-German interactions in the field of Gothic, will find there references to all the relevant secondary literature. The German Gothic Novel in Anglo-German Perspective is addressed to Germanists, but also to teachers and students of English, American and comparative literature, for there is at present hardly a ‘hotter’ subject than Gothic. The book’s emphasis on the Gothic work of canonical writers should prompt even conservative German Departments to reconsider their attitude to Gothic. Being addressed to scholars and students of German, German quotations are given in German, but English translations are added for the convenience of English and American scholars and students of Gothic, who represent another important section of the books’ target audience.

Catherine Reid

This chapter presents work-in-progress that investigates the positioning of the visual in recent iterations of the Australian curriculum for subject English. Much professional literature in recent years has advocated the inclusion of multiliteracies, including visual literacy, across the school subjects. This chapter attempts to explore definitions and conceptualisations of visual literacy, and argues that existing ways of ‘seeing the visual’ within secondary classroom practice are limited, as they focus on ‘visual grammar’, while neglecting the affective domain and aesthetic response. Findings derived from document analysis are presented with a view to ascertaining the ways in which the visual is constructed and positioned in the curriculum for subject English. Recommendations drawn from these findings include the development of dedicated pedagogies and assessment frameworks to support a broader and more authentic use of visual resources in secondary schooling.

Ana Lúcia de Campos Almeida

This chapter is intended to present and reflect upon data – autobiographical narratives – produced by subjects who acted as students in a research project about literacy development and teacher training. The research corpus is constituted by the literacy stories experienced by these subjects who are enrolled in a training course for Portuguese language teachers. Drawing upon authors affiliated to the New Literacy Studies, we view literacy as a set of cultural practices developed in social life, which varies in complexity and value according to its insertion in different domains of discourse and spheres of cultural activities. Thus, individuals may develop varied degrees and kinds of literacies depending on their contact with dominant/prestigious or vernacular domains of discourses along their lives. Observing and investigating the stories the subjects tell, their autobiographical narratives, we are able to see: i) how they have been constituted as readers; ii) the cultural ways written texts make meaning for them and their communities; iii) what are the main factors to influence or determine their participation in written culture on the present days. Preliminary and partial observations from data analysis have pointed out the important role of subjective/affective values, associated with cultural meanings, in the development of prestigious literacies, the ones from academic and literary domains, in the case of our research subjects.