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Motiv und Metapher der Schrift in der Fotografie

Philipp Goldbach

Das Verhältnis von Lichtbild und Schrift ist Thema dieser Studie. Sie fragt, wie dieses Verhältnis seit dem 19. Jahrhundert in praktisch-theoretischer Hinsicht und in Werken künstlerischer Fotografie quer durch das 20. Jahrhundert bestimmt worden ist, um mit der Digitalisierung seine bislang jüngsten Neuformulierungen zu erfahren.
Eine medientheoretische mit einer motivgeschichtlichen Perspektive kreuzend, fokussiert Goldbach seinen Gegenstand im Schnittpunkt zweier Blickachsen: der einer Konzeption von Fotografie als neuer und anderer Sprachform, und der konkreter fotografischer Bilder von Schriften – u.a. bei Brassaï, László Moholy-Nagy, Walker Evans, William Klein und Andreas Gursky. Erstmals zusammenhängend nachgezeichnet wird die Beziehung von Fotografie und Schrift auf einer technik- und diskursgeschichtlichen, systematisch-formalen und ästhetisch-poetologischen Ebene.

Simon Rothöhler

challenge human sense-making. Sensory processing is not directed through human sensing-subjects primarily but is instead located throughout automated sensing processes. As it is decoupled from human subjects, sensing as a process of making meaning, and of generating capacities to make sense and act on

Simon Rothöhler

what economic geographers call the friction of distance, exposing it to the risk of damage, spoilage, theft, or miscarriage and subjecting it to the contingencies of topography, seasonality, and territorial politics. It submitted the picture to the captivation of extrinsic transport and communications

Simon Rothöhler

ubiquitous computing refers […] simply to itself, consisting of networks of sensors, actuators, finitestate machines, maintaining homeostatic levels, feeding and tracking information from one integrated circuit to another. The human subject may come late in the chain if at all.« 680 Der von Weiser avisierte

Simon Rothöhler

delicate, weightless, and ephemeral its subject matter, as soon as a painting must be shipped, it must be weighed and measured, packed and labelled. Postage must be paid.« 385 Vor dem Hintergrund dieser weit zurückreichenden Erzählung der »material mobility of pictures« (Roberts) scheint die Vorstellung

Pfarr-Harfst Mieke

For more than 10 years the Department Information and Communication Technology in Architecture has been engaged with the interactions between digital media and architecture. The chapter provides an overview on teaching and research of this topic. In numerous seminars different topics of this subject area were investigated. One of the main topics was on research projects in the field of history of architecture. These research projects were integrated into science studios which are part of teaching. Science studios are a special kind of teaching and were established in this subject group. The definition of science studios is an interdisciplinary discussion determined by different perception of the respective research project in the areas of art, technology and society. Digital reconstructions were the tombs of the Emperor of Xi’an as well as the visualization of the vision of Atlantropa. This concept of teaching and researching was completed by workshops and seminars which looked into current topics in the field of architecture and digital media. Part of it was the discussion of the virtual world ‘Second LifeTM’ as place of teaching of architecture and the draft of new concepts of teaching which will be used there. Furthermore, the façade design with the new building material ‘information’. At this subject group basic teaching is focused on how to use digital media as a design medium. Students learn to identify, elaborate and illustrate drafts and space allocation plans of architects by using new media. This chapter will present some of the science studio results worked out by students as well as the most interesting seminar topics. On the basis of theoretical architectural discussion the potentials of digital media for teaching architecture are shown. In this discussion the focus is on virtual models as teaching and research medium.

Steven Billingslea II

Prejudice in videogames can be an uncomfortable subject to deal with. The idea that such a detestable issue could taint not just the game, but also the medium itself, makes some gamers very uneasy. With today’s current outlook on prejudice in America, some gamers prefer to ignore accusations of racism and stereotypical characters in games, telling critics that ‘it’s just a game’ and that they are ‘reading too much into it.’ The view that prejudice in videogames is fake because it does not target real people can cause gamers to believe that representations of cultures steeped in negative stereotypes is just a part of their world and that others would just have to learn to ‘deal with it’ or decide to quit playing. While I believe this approach is harmful, it is not surprising to see a blind eye turned to the subject. Dealing with such an issue would mean taking a look at the cause, and in effect, possibly changing the way videogames and the characters within are developed. This chapter aims to look at where prejudice in videogames, most notably games centered on war, crime and battle, and character design comes from, why it is such an issue, what type of effects it has on players, and what possible solutions there may be to resolve the issue.

Paul T. Scriven

This chapter discusses the application of a phenomenological framework to inform research in immersive virtual worlds such as MMORPG’s. Based on the phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schutz, the chapter examines some of the key problems facing researchers in online spaces. Some virtual worlds such as those found in MMORPG’s are immersive spaces that facilitate experiences dissimilar to the physical world; consequently the ideas and meanings generated by these experiences need to be treated as somewhat unique in their nature. From the viewpoint of researcher-as-observer in physical space, a subject’s body acts as a field of expression, with their actions as indications of their motivations. In most online spaces, the physical body is absent and no longer available as a field of expression, and action in its traditional sense becomes difficult to define. Consequently, the availability of knowledge of the physical participant, as well as access to the contexts in which action takes place is often limited. In discussing these issues using the vocabulary of Schutz’s phenomenology, this chapter attempts to clarify some of these concepts to build a useful framework for conducting social research in MMORPG’s. The key points to be discussed are the adequacy of player characters as a field of expression; player characters interacting with virtual environments as observable action; and determining to what extent knowledge of the player character, rather than player, can contribute to establishing contexts of action. Ensuring an understanding of the ways in which virtual social worlds can be constituted as sites of distinctive experiences is important for all research methods, but is of great importance for more qualitative research methods such as ethnography and discourse analysis.

Inge Wagner

Observing today’s social life, it quickly becomes obvious that a significant part of it has shifted into a multimedia space, the Internet. Simultaneously there also a variety of possibilities were developed which allow an individual not only to portray and present himself in a web based social community but also to update, modify and vary facets of himself continually. The so-called Web 2.0 provides the technical foundation for self-portrayal and social networking. An individual and his description of himself is no longer tied to specific situations. Social web platforms, such as Facebook, Xing, Badoo, or C-Date, offer the possibility to describe all fields of real life which includes the portrayal of professional, friendly as well as erotically or sexually motivated relationships. This investigation centres on a semiotic description of an Ego that is not in the tradition of Freud's psychoanalytic instance between an instinctive Id and a standards-complying Super-Ego but rather on an Ego as a de facto person who perceives himself as an active acting being which experiences itself as a subject distinct from the counter-part, or is perceived as such from the outside. The ‘person’ in the social web is no longer distinguished through a uniform and consistent user identity, but rather a designed image, which is defined with Dyer as ‘a complex configuration of visual, verbal and aural signs’ which acts as an aspect of the user’s persona and adapts to the external circumstances of the chosen platform.

Ben Hudson

Videogames can be comedies that are amusing as a result of artistic choice, but they can also be seen as artifacts: objects (or virtual objects) that have their own intrinsic man-made qualities that are often unintentionally funny or can be exploited for comic value. Players experience videogames by interacting with an imperfect simulation – virtual worlds pre-defined by rules and boundaries that govern the player’s ability to express their ideas and individuality. The virtual environment is therefore immersive, yet incongruous with the experience of reality. This chapter will examine this incongruity as a potential source of humour. By embodying avatars and inhabiting virtual realities, it will be suggested that individuals must confront what Bergson terms a ‘mechanical inelasticity... where one would expect to find the wide-awake adaptability and the living pliableness of a human being.’ This chapter will look at examples of online gaming culture, from shooters such as Valve’s Counter-Strike (2000) to experimental modifications such as Dean Hall’s Arma 2 ‘mod’ DayZ (2012), where communities of players have found comic ways to utilise artificially limited ranges of expression and draw on the game world as a shared reference-point for humour. Fan-made internet memes and ‘Machinima’ proliferate videogame-based humour, lampooning videogame tropes and logic for an audience familiar with their subjects, but discussion will also include the impact of videogame slapstick in popular culture, looking at the work of comedians such as Dara O’Briain and Seann Walsh who have recently parodied videogame content in their acts. Lastly, with reference to the practice as research presentation Ben Hudson, Live in Virtual Reality (2009), a Stand-up Comedy performance hosted in Sony’s online social network PlayStation Home, this chapter will examine the potential for virtual spaces to act as venues for comedy performance.