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The Gospel to the Romans

The Setting and Rhetoric of Mark's Gospel


Brian Incigneri

This book proposes that Mark's Gospel was written in Rome in late 71 after the return of the feared Titus who had recently destroyed the Jerusalem Temple. Recognising that the use of emotional appeals was a prime contemporary rhetorical tool, it shows the Gospel to be an emotionally-charged text aimed at readers traumatised by years of persecution, fear of arrest and intra-community tensions over the forgiveness of those who had failed. It examines the political, social and religious situation and shows that the Gospel contains allusions to many recent events of concern to Christians. Mark stirs their fears and painful memories to move them to a new resolve, providing a model for them — Jesus, the first martyr for the gospel.

Reading the Bible Ethically

Recovering the Voice in the Text


Eric J. Douglass

All interpretive systems deal with the author. Modern systems consider the text to be autonomous, so that it is disconnected from the author’s interests. In Reading the Bible Ethically, Eric Douglass reconsiders this connection. His central argument is that the author is a subject who reproduces her culture and her subjectivity in the text. As the author reproduces her subjectivity, the text functions as the author’s voice. This allows Douglass to apply ethical principles to interpretation, where that voice is treated as a subject for conversation, and not an object for manipulation. He uses this to texture the reading process, so that an initial reading takes account of the author’s communication, while a second reading critiques that communication.

L'Exagoge d'Ezéchiel le Tragique

Introduction, texte, traduction et commentaire


Pierluigi Lanfranchi

The seventeen fragments of the Ezekiel’s Exagoge (between mid-2nd and mid-1st century BCE) relate the story of the first fifteen chapters of the Exodus. They are the only evidence of a Jewish tragedy which has come down to us from Antiquity, as well as the most extensive specimen of a Greek tragedy of the Hellenistic period. For this reason the Exagoge is of unique historical, religious and literary value.
This volume provides a translation and an in-depth commentary of the fragments of the Exagoge. The author deals with philological, dramaturgical and exegetical questions and sheds light on the relation between Ezekiel’s drama and the Greek Bible, Hellenistic Jewish literature and Greek classical models.
The introduction focuses on general subjects: the manifold Jewish attitudes towards theatre, the social and cultural context of the performance of the Exagoge, the dramatisation of the biblical text by Ezekiel, the complicated history of the transmission of the fragments.

Les dix-sept fragments de l’ Exagoge d’Ezéchiel le Tragique (entre la moitié du IIe et la moitié du Ier siècle av.n.è.) racontent l’histoire des quinze premiers chapitres de l’ Exode. Ils sont non seulement le témoignage unique d’une tragédie juive que l’Antiquité nous a transmise, mais aussi le spécimen le plus étendu de tragédie grecque de la période hellénistique. Sa valeur historique, religieuse et littéraire est donc unique.
Ce volume offre une traduction et un commentaire approfondi des fragments de l’ Exagoge. Les problèmes philologiques, dramaturgiques et exégétiques y sont étudiés que les liens de cette pièce avec d’une part le texte biblique et la littérature du Judaïsme hellénistique, d’autre part les modèles des tragédies classiques.
Dans l’introduction des questions générales sont abordées : les différentes attitudes des Juifs à l’égard du théâtre, le contexte social et culturel dans lequel l’ Exagoge a été représentée, la dramatisation du texte biblique opérée par Ezéchiel, l’histoire complexe de la transmission des fragments.

From a Virgin Womb

The Apocalypse of Adam and the Virgin Birth


Andrew Welburn

Scholarly researches on the virgin birth have often focussed rather narrowly on the theological and historical difficulties it tends to raise. The Nag Hammadi Apocalypse of Adam, however, provides for the first time a glimpse into the wider background of ideas and myths to which it belonged. Prophecies there concerning a universal 'Illuminator' mention his birth 'from a virgin womb'. Several of the stories, drawn from Iranian and other sources , also appear in apocalyptic and testamental literature contemporary with Christian origins. The book centrally analyses a body of extraordinarily detailed narrative parallels between a cluster of stories in the Apocalypse and the infancy narratives of Mt. 1-2, concluding that these stories serve to identify Jesus as the True Prophet who is the fulfilment of history - though not as Son of God. The question of Mt.'s special tradition and its relation to Lk. is also cast in a new light.