Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 18 items for :

  • All: "subject" x
  • Sociolinguistics x
  • Indo-European Languages x
Clear All

Gregory L. Thompson and Edwin M. Lamboy

Series:

John Flowerdew

Abstract

Signalling nouns are abstract nouns the meaning of which is only fully realized in context. Because this class of noun is particularly prevalent in academic discourse, this paper examines to what extent the use of these nouns varies across two different academic genres: textbooks and lectures. The research was based upon two corpora. The first of these consisted of transcribed recordings of an undergraduate lecture course in biology (92,939 words). The second corpus was made up of the relevant sections of the prescribed textbook for the lecture course upon which the lectures were based (90,482 words). Both corpora covered the same subject matter; therefore, the differences between them can be attributed to the genres rather than the subject matter. Analysis was assisted by the use of Wordsmith Tools (Scott 1999). Using Halliday’s contextual parameters of field, tenor and mode, differences were noted in each of these domains. The most striking finding was that the total usage of signalling nouns is much more prevalent in the textbook than in the lecture --more than twice as frequent. Finer distinctions were found, however, according to Halliday’s contextual parameters. The findings are used as the basis for recommendations for pedagogy.

The progressive in 19th-century English

A process of integration

Series:

Erik Smitterberg

The present volume is an empirical, corpus-based study of the progressive in 19th-century English. As the 1800s have been relatively neglected in previous research, and as the study is based on a new cross-genre corpus focusing on this period (CONCE = A Corpus of Nineteenth-Century English), the volume adds significantly to our knowledge of the historical development of the progressive. The use of two separate measures enables an accurate account of the frequency development of the progressive, which is also related to multi-feature/multi-dimensional analyses. Other topics covered include the complexity of progressive verb phrases and the distribution of the construction across linguistic parameters such as clause type. Special attention is paid to progressives that express something beyond purely aspectual meaning. The results show that the progressive became more fully integrated into English grammar over the 19th century, but also that linguistic and extralinguistic parameters affected this integration process; for instance, the construction was more common in women’s than in men’s private letters. Owing to the wide methodological scope of the study, it is of interest to linguists specializing in corpus linguistics, language variation and change, verbal syntax, the progressive, or the linguistic expression of aspect, either in synchrony or diachrony.

Corpus Analysis

Language Structure and Language Use

Series:

Edited by Pepi Leistyna and Charles F. Meyer

The papers published in this volume were originally presented at the Third North American Symposium on Corpus Linguistics and Language Teaching held on 23-25 March 2001 at the Park Plaza Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts. Each paper analyses some aspect of language use or structure in one or more of the many linguistic corpora now available. The number of different corpora investigated in the book is a real testament to the progress that has been made in recent years in developing new corpora, particularly spoken corpora, as over half of the papers deal either wholly or partially with the analysis of spoken data. This book will be of particular interest to undergraduate and graduate students and scholars interested in corpus, socio and applied linguistics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, and language teaching.

Gregory Thompson and Edwin Lamboy

This handbook is unique in its focus on bilingual theories, issues on the teaching of bilinguals, bilingual policies abroad, and current research on bilinguals as all of this related in some way to the Spanish-speaking world. There is currently no other book like it available, despite the growing number of courses teaching Spanish Bilingualism. It is anticipated that this new handbook will be of great interest to linguists, sociolinguists, language acquisitionists, as well as teachers who deal with topics relating to bilingualism as it relates to Spanish speakers around the world. Though work has been done looking at bilingualism and multilingualism, this book provides a valuable addition that deals with an area where a comprehensive work such as this is indeed lacking.

Series:

Bonnie Fonseca-Greber and Linda R. Waugh

Abstract

This article is concerned with the investigation of variation, completed change, and change in progress, which are leading to a radical difference between everyday spoken European French and the standard written variety. We will focus on one small part of French grammar -- the subject pronouns -- and detail how grammatical and semantic change is contributing to an incipient diglossic situation in French, a situation which must be recognized by linguists and language teachers alike. Standard treatments (linguistic, reference, pedagogical grammars) of French agree that the subject personal pronouns/clitics (used with a verb) are: je ‘I’, tu ‘you’ (familiar/ singular), il, elle ‘he, she, it’, nous ‘we’, vous ‘you’ (plural, polite), ils, elles ‘they’, and, among others, the indefinite on ‘one’. This accounts quite well for written French, but it is quite inaccurate for everyday spoken French. Through the analysis of a corpus of everyday spoken European French, we have found that the subject clitics (especially the first and second person, and third person to a certain extent) have become grammatical prefixes. In addition, as we will show in detail, nous has all but disappeared as a subject clitic and has been replaced by on-. At the same time, the use of on- for ‘one’ is much less frequent than before: there has been a reversal of the basic/marginal relation in its meaning, such that the meaning ‘we’ occurs in by far the majority of its uses, and the meaning ‘one’ is now only a marginal meaning. There are, however, vague uses of on, which could be interpreted as either ‘we’ or ‘one’ -- thus showing the path of change from the one to the other both diachronically and synchronically. This indefinite meaning is now shifting over increasingly to tu (and only to a very small extent to vous), so much so that in our corpus, tu seems to have two basic meanings, split almost 50-50 between ‘you’ and ‘one’. This is inherently an unstable situation and probably presages more changes to come. It is clear, therefore, that more good corpus work is needed for a fuller understanding of spoken European French. Paradoxically, in addition, good corpus work is also needed on written French of many different varieties, since the reference and pedagogical grammars that focus on the written language tend to be based on the written French of only the ‘best’ authors and ‘good usage’. And finally, corpus-based reference works and textbooks are essential if we expect our students to develop any real, pragmatically appropriate, communicative proficiency in French.

Series:

Susan Fitzmaurice

Abstract

This article explores the grammar of stance in the letters produced by a network of early eighteenth-century English writers associated with the essayist and diplomat, Joseph Addison. I conduct a corpus linguistic analysis of the relative occurrence of modal auxiliaries and lexically explicit stance expressions with the first person subject to explore the grammatical realization of speaker involvement in epistolary discourse. Examination of the kinds of grammatical constructions favored by the stance expressions indicate that verbs like think, hope, and believe appear to favor zero-marked complement clauses with first person subjects, whereas know favors wh-complement clauses. Close analysis reveals that writers deploy stance expressions in conventional as well as idiosyncratic ways in epistolary discourse.

Series:

Beke Hansen

and global characteristics of the competition between must and have to in Sections 9.2 and 9.3. First, I will take a closer look at the local characteristics of the alternation in spoken hke , IndE, and BrE, when I analyse the effects of age, gender of the speaker, text type, and type of subject

Series:

Beke Hansen

, ice - hk , ice - ind *, and ice - sin and classified these tokens according to (up to) 12 independent variables. 4.3.1 Coding the Independent Variables I coded the variants according to the language-internal factors: (1) function of the modal verb, (2) reference of the preceding subject, (3